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MUSLIM ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL :The Pork DNA found in products certified as Halal by HFA

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MUSLIM ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL

Higham Grange, Watling Street, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, CV11 6BE

FINDINGS OF A PUBLIC COMMUNITY INQUIRY

This document is declared as an open public record emanating from the Public Community Inquiry held by the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal (‘MAT’) on 4th July 2013.

BACKGROUND

The Halal Food Authority (‘HFA’) is a private limited company that is in the business of accrediting and certifying food products as Halal. McColgan Quality Foods is a manufacturing company that produces food products. McColgan Quality Foods had produced food products for a company called 3663 who in turn supply such products to the Muslims held in UK jails. The products produced by McColgan Quality Foods for 3663 were certified as Halal by the HFA.

In or around February of this year, the Food Standards Agency carried out DNA tests on various products in light of the horse meat scandal. As part of these tests, products certified as Halal by HFA were also part of the DNA testing. Results of such DNA testing found traces of Pork DNA in products certified as Halal by HFA.

The Pork DNA found in products certified as Halal by HFA were manufactured by McColgan Quality Foods for 3663 and were intended to supplied by 3663 to the Ministry of Justice. The said products were intended for Muslims held in UK prisons.

Acceding to the Muslim Community’s request, MAT deemed that there should be a Public Community Inquiry in order to establish the circumstances surrounding Pork DNA being found in such products certified as Halal by HFA.

On 5th February 2013, MAT wrote to HFA in its capacity as the company who had certified the products as Halal, asking it to engage with MAT. MAT had informed HFA that on behalf of the Muslim Community, a Public Community Inquiry will be held in order to investigate this issue. Similar correspondence was also sent to McColgan Quality Foods and 3663.

The Muslim Community continued its engagement with MAT and stressed for there to be a Public Community Inquiry into the matter and on 17th June 2013, MAT invited all parties to attend a Public Community Inquiry to be held on 4th July 2013.

McColgan Quality Foods responded via their solicitors and confirmed that they will not be attending or participating. It is also prudent to note that the said correspondence to MAT mentioned that:

“We confirm that our client received certification from the Halal Food Authority for each of the Halal products it supplied for consumption in prisons. Certification involved substantive consideration of the ingredients of each of the products, along with production processes at our client’s premises”

3663 also responded and confirmed that they too would not be attending or participating. 3663 further mentioned that:

“we [make] 3663’s position in the ‘supply chain’ clear…3663 does not produce or manufacture any food itself at all. It is a distributor and distributed products bought from an independent producer which was certified by the Halal Food Authority to product Halal food”

MUSLIM ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL

Higham Grange, Watling Street, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, CV11 6BE

HFA did respond but did not inform MAT as to whether or not it would be attending the Public Community Inquiry.

THE PUBLIC COMMUNITY INQUIRY

On 4th July 2013, a Public Community Inquiry was held. The nature of the Public Community Inquiry was the circumstances surrounding pork DNA found in certain products certified as Halal by HFA.

In attendance were Messrs Sultan Mehmood, Asim Awan and Mohammed Hussain. HFA did not attend.

Messrs Sultan Mehmood and Asim Awan are Solicitors by profession and were engaged by MAT as the Panel Members of the Public Community Inquiry. Mr Mohammed Hussain was the lead investigator acting for and on behalf of MAT.

FINDINGS OF THE PUBLIC COMMUNITY INQUIRY

Notwithstanding HFA’s and the other parties non attendance, the Public Community Inquiry nevertheless took place and it held as follows:

Facts

HFA is a private limited company in the business of certifying products as Halal. McColgan Quality Foods are food manufacturers and produced the product in question (pastries and pies) (‘Products’). McColgan Quality Foods had produced the Product for a company called 3663 who intended to supply such products to the Muslims held in UK jails. The products produced by McColgan Quality Foods for 3663 were certified as Halal by HFA.

In or around February of this year, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) carried out DNA tests on various products in light of the horse meat scandal. As part of this DNA testing, the Products manufactured by McColgan Quality Foods were also submitted for DNA testing. The FSA informed the Ministry of Justice that pork DNA was found in the Products. The Products were withdrawn. Halal Certification of the Products

HFA had accredited McColgan Quality Foods as the manufacturer of the Products produced for 3663 as Halal.

In relation to the said Halal audits and certification, the following questions were outstanding and needed to be addressed and answered by HFA. To date, such questions remain unanswered:-

1. When did the audit take place?

2. How frequently has McColgan Quality Foods been audited?

3. What did the audit process consist of?

4. Was an audit report prepared and if so, can it be made public? If not, then on what grounds is it not being disclosed?

5. When and how often did the announced and unannounced audits take place and what were the findings?

MUSLIM ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL

Higham Grange, Watling Street, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, CV11 6BE

The Products

Traces of pork DNA were found in the actual products. This shows that:

1. The actual meat may have came into contact with pork prior to such meat being supplied to the manufacturer of the Products; and/or

2. At the manufacturing stage or at some stage(s) prior to the packaging of the Products, the Products came into contact with pork or elements of pork.

The following questions were outstanding and needed to be addressed and answered by HFA. To date, such questions remain unanswered:-

1. What were the ingredients of the Products?

2. Where was the meat sourced from and what traceability steps were carried out by HFA (as part of its auditing process) to ensure the authenticity of such meat and that it was Halal and fit for Muslim consumption?

3. What else is produced at the manufacturing site where the Products were produced?

4. Are there any pork or pork based products made at the manufacturing site where the Products were produced and what steps, if any, did HFA take (as part of its auditing process) to remove the possibility or doubt of there being any cross contamination in respect of the Products with other non halal (or pork based products) and how is this procedure validated and regulated. In particular, what measures did HFA put in place (as part of its auditing process) to ensure that there was no cross contamination between Halal and non Halal products:

a. At the goods in stage, where all goods enter the manufacturing site;

b. At the manufacturing stage;

c. At the packaging stage;

d. At the location where the product is stored;

e. At the distribution stage

5. What steps or measures did HFA take (as part of its auditing process) to establish how the machinery used to manufacture the Products is cleaned in preparation for Halal production? If non-Halal products are also produced at the same manufacturing site, when does the Halal production take place and what steps or measures did HFA put in place (as part of its auditing process) to ensure that the machinery is free and clear of any contaminants from previous products prior to the production of the Halal products and how is this procedure verified and regulated?

HFA’s Actions Once the Pork DNA Scandal Came to Light

There is no clarity on the steps and investigations HFA has or did conduct in this matter. HFA should have made clear all steps and investigations that it has or did take in relation to this issue and more importantly the findings of such investigations.

In its press release of 22nd February, HFA stated that “in the wake of the pork DNA and horsemeat scandals, the

HFA has brought in extra mandatory controls and implemented more stringent checks and balances to our existing halal certification criteria”.

MUSLIM ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL

Higham Grange, Watling Street, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, CV11 6BE

The following further questions are outstanding and need to be addressed by HFA.

1. what extra mandatory controls and stringent checks and balances have been introduced?

2. when were they introduced?

3. who did HFA consult/liaise with prior to introduction of such measures?

4. who have they been implemented upon?

5. What has been the difference in the standards and auditing process pre and post the pork DNA scandal?

It is not likely that the questions stipulated in this document shall be answered by HFA or any of the other connected parties.

Conclusion

How and what steps will HFA execute to reassure the Muslim Community that any such incident will not happen again?

HFA should make public all communications made with McColgan Quality Foods and 3663 in the aftermath of this event.

HFA have merely revoked the Halal certification of McColgan Quality Foods. The Public Community Inquiry finds that such a step is not enough nor does it resolve the underlying issue.

The Public Community Inquiry finds that as the Products were intended for Muslims held in UK jails, due to Pork DNA found in the Products, the material parties did not produce and supply the Products in accordance with the criteria and mandate established by HM Prison Service.

The Public Community Inquiry further finds that there are serious and pertinent questions which remain unanswered by HFA regarding its procedure for auditing and certifying products as Halal and that unless cogent answers are given to the aforegoing questions in a manner that satisfies the Muslim Community, the Muslim Community ought to be prudent and cautious of HFA and its auditing process and should avoid consuming products certified as Halal by HFA until the Muslim Community is satisfied and informed of the detail and manner in which HFA conducts its Halal audits and its certification process for products that it accredits as Halal and how it monitors and regulates such production once an audit has taken place and a Halal certificate issued.

Muslim Arbitration Tribunal

8th July 2013

source : Muslim Arbitration Tribunal 

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U.S. consumers spent $11 billion on halal products in 2011

zabiha

When McDonald’s announced it would discontinue the sale of halal chicken nuggets and chicken sandwiches at two restaurants earlier this week, it brought to light a thorny issue riling the Muslim-American community: inconsistent halal standards and fraudulent advertising and marketing of Islamically permitted products.

The United States is now home to thousands of halal-compliant food industry businesses, offering Muslim Americans a choice of offerings and convenience that earlier generations could only have imagined.

But this booming halal market is often accompanied by a lack of consensus about what constitutes halal — and that has caused confusion and controversy among Muslim Americans. In addition, several well-publicized incidents of fraud have left halal consumers vulnerable to unscrupulous merchants and suspicious about the sources of the products they are buying.

These problems surfaced when McDonald’s announced it would discontinue halal nuggets and sandwiches at two restaurants in Dearborn, Mich. The decision follows a 2011 lawsuit alleging McDonald’s falsely advertised non-halal chicken as halal. In January, McDonald’s paid $700,000 to settle the suit, but denied any wrongdoing.

It is not the first such settlement. In 2011, the Orange County, Calif., district attorney obtained a $527,000 settlement against the Super King Market in Anaheim, alleging the store falsely advertised generic and mixed meat as halal. The store denied wrongdoing.

“There is a lot of cheating,” said Syed Rasheeduddin Ahmed, founder of the Muslim Consumer Group, a halal certification and educational group in Huntley, Ill. “I am glad McDonald’s stopped the so-called halal chicken because they are not real halal.”

In part, the problem stems from the explosion of products racing to meet growing market demands.

The number of U.S. grocers with halal products has mushroomed from 10 in 1970 to more than 2,300 in 2012, while the number of restaurants serving halal food now exceeds 6,900, according to the Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, a halal certification and education group in Park Ridge, Ill.

U.S. consumers spent $11 billion on halal products in 2011, the nutrition council said.

“It’s a big market share,” said Timothy Abu Mounir Hyatt, managing director of Islamic Services of America, a halal certification group in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. “We have a lot of customers who understand the importance of complying.”

While halal-observant Muslims welcome the plethora of choices, many are also wary that some merchants may try and take advantage of their religiosity to pass off products that aren’t halal.

“So long as there are few legal protections, there are often unscrupulous merchants that get away with it,” said Shahed Amanullah, founder of zabihah.com, a website with listings and customer reviews of halal restaurants and grocers around the world, including several thousand in the United States.

Indeed, the zabihah.com website (the name refers to the term used for the Islamic ritual slaughter of an animal) includes many reviews in which diners call out restaurants they believe are falsely advertising halal.

Halal, which means “lawful” or “permitted” in Arabic, requires that meat such as beef, lamb, goat, and poultry be raised and killed humanely, and that a blessing be said at the time of slaughter. Non-halal foods include carnivorous animals and birds of prey, as well as pork and products derived from pork such as gelatin. Fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts and grains are permitted.

But the halal industry is hampered by another problem, too: division among Muslims. In 2006, a group of scholars dealing in Islamic law, ruled that machine-slaughtered animals are halal so long as they are blessed and butchered properly. Yet many Muslims, including Ahmed of the Muslim Consumer Group, said that only meat that is hand cut is permitted. Others say that a restaurant cannot be considered halal if it also sells forbidden products like pork and alcohol.

There are several organizations in the United States that certify products as halal and send inspectors into slaughterhouses and manufacturing plants to verify that the work is done according to Islamic law. A few states, including California, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, and Virginia, have passed laws penalizing businesses for false advertising of halal products.

Some Muslims say certification and guidelines do little to protect halal consumers from false advertising. At the same time, halal certifiers lack the manpower to inspect every individual restaurant and grocer, and instead focus on slaughterhouses and food manufacturers.

Given the pitfalls, what’s a halal eater to do? The best defense against fraud, Amanullah said, is education. He encourages consumers to check zabihah.com for reviews, and to directly ask businesses owners about their halal offerings.

“In the absence of universally accepted and verified halal standards, halal consumers should feel free to ask for verification of sources of halal meat so they can make up their own mind,” said Amanullah. “Businesses committed to serving this market will be happy to oblige.”

Source : Huffingtonpost

halalAmerica2

$27m halal food processing plant to be built in Dubai

burj-al-arab-hotel-skyscraper-architecture-dubai-1920x1080

 

Al Islami Foods is building a $27million food processing plant in Dubai thanks to an increase in demand for halal food.

Construction on the 11,500-square-foot facility will begin next month at Dubai Investment Park and will process more than 1,500 tons of meat a month. It is expected to be completed by the end of 2014.

Al Islami meat is sourced from farms where the real halal process of no-stunning and hand slaughtering is followed. The plant will house machinery to produce products including sausages, kebabs, burgers, minced meat, and nuggets.
“Al Islami will continue to strictly adhere to its policy of supplying real halal products that meet the regulatory standards of local and international markets,” said Saleh Abdullah Lootah, CEO, Al Islami Foods.

“With the ever increasing demand in the local and international markets for halal products, this production facility comes in at the right time.”

The idea behind the new facility is to ensure a minimum production time for all products that travel from the farm to the production facility.

Al Islami Foods was formerly known as Co-op Islami and changed its name to Al Islami Foods in 2006. The company was founded in 1981 and is based the United Arab Emirates.

Fermeture d'un abattoir volaille sud de la Hollande

abattoir Hollande fermeture

Slaughterhouse Slingerland in Pijnacker, certificated bij HVV has been stopped with selling halal unstunned halalchicken.
The government laws /rules for small slaughterhouses are too much now and very expensive to pay the extra controles by VWA Food Authority in Holland.

 

HALAL CHICKEN SLAUGHTER AND ABATTOIR MACHINE LINE 1

Abattoir Jan Van Ee Be n'est plus certifié Halal Correct depuis mi juin il a changé sa procédure d'abattage et utilise l'étourdissement par inhalation d'un gaz avant sacrifice

halal correct

Pluimveeverwerking Jan van Ee B.V.

https://maps.google.fr/maps?q&layer=c&z=17&iwloc=A&sll=52.177102,5.695530&cid=5667813058031524984&cbp=13,93.2,3.7,0,0&panoid=m_iWYQvY5fY9aeUqLMH69w&ved=0CAsQ2wU&sa=X&ei=eODSUaSZOMbYigbEl4HABg&gl=FR&hl=fr

Source http://www.ikeethalal.nl/jan-van-ee-bv-slacht-niet-meer-halal/

controlepostmortemparveterinaire2

 

L’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) a achevé un travail majeur qui constituera le fondement scientifique pour la modernisation du système d’inspection des viandes dans toute l’UE. Utilisant une approche fondée sur les risques, l’EFSA a identifié et classé les dangers pour la santé publique associés à la viande. Comme demandé par la Commission européenne, l’EFSA a recommandé des améliorations à apporter aux procédures d’inspection des viandes pour protéger les consommateurs des risques associés à ces dangers.

Catherine Geslain-Lanéelle, le directeur exécutif de l’EFSA, a déclaré : « Ces travaux vont aider les gestionnaires des risques à atténuer les risques pour la santé publique à une étape importante de la chaîne de production de viande ».

Les quatre publications scientifiques parues aujourd’hui contiennent des conseils relatifs aux procédures d’inspection des viandes pour les bovins, les ovins et les caprins, le gibier d’élevage et les solipèdes domestiques tels que les chevaux. Ces publications font suite à deux avis antérieurs relatifs à l’inspection des porcs et des volailles, publiés respectivement en 2011 et en 2012. Depuis lors, l’EFSA a évalué des procédures d’inspection des viandes pour une large variété d’animaux producteurs de viandes dans l’UE.

Les pratiques traditionnelles d’inspection des viandes ne sont pas toujours adaptées à la détection des principaux dangers associés à la viande, tels que Campylobacter et Salmonella ou une contamination par des substances chimiques telles que des polluants organiques persistants ou des substances interdites. C’est la raison pour laquelle la Commission européenne a décidé qu’il convenait de moderniser les pratiques d’inspection des viandes dans l’UE.

Pour tous les types d’animaux producteurs de viande examinés, l’EFSA a identifié les dangers biologiques et chimiques d’origine alimentaire et les a classés en fonction du risque pour la santé publique.

Pour les dangers biologiques, le classement des priorités a été basé sur l’évaluation de l’impact sur l’incidence de la maladie, la gravité de la maladie chez l’homme et les preuves que la consommation de viande issue des différentes espèces animales constitue un facteur de risque important pour la maladie.

Le classement des risques associés aux dangers chimiques a été fondé sur les résultats des plans nationaux de contrôle des résidus pour la période 2005-2010 et d’autres programmes de tests, ainsi que sur des critères spécifiques aux substances, tels que leur profil toxicologique.

Pour les dangers biologiques d’origine alimentaire les plus importants, l’EFSA a également proposé des indicateurs épidémiologiques harmonisés. Ces derniers seront utiles dans le cadre du système complet d’assurance de la sécurité des viandes proposé, en permettant de catégoriser les exploitations, les cheptels ou les troupeaux et les abattoirs en fonction du risque potentiel et de définir des objectifs microbiologiques pour les carcasses.

Les experts scientifiques de l’EFSA ont recommandé des améliorations à apporter aux pratiques existantes ou des méthodes alternatives pour l’inspection des viandes. Les experts de l’EFSA se sont également penchés sur les implications des modifications proposées pour les pratiques actuelles de surveillance de la santé et du bien-être des animaux.

Pour remplir ce mandat complexe et portant sur des questions transversales, l’EFSA a mis à contribution ses compétences dans une grande variété de domaines couverts par son mandat scientifique: dangers biologiques, y compris les zoonoses (maladies animales transmissibles à l’homme), contaminants chimiques présents dans la chaîne alimentaire, santé et bien-être des animaux, méthodes d’évaluation des risques et collecte de données.

786 label

Marché protégé, Consommateur satisfait...

Face toujour à nouveaux défis

Estimé à 150 milliards d'euros par an dans le monde, le marché des viandes Halal est en pleine croissance et notamment en France où il progresse de 7 à 10% par an. C’est l’un des rares secteurs à ne pas connaître la crise et les besoins de consommation augmentent jour après jour.

Face à ces nouveaux défis, il fallait des professionnels du Halal sérieux, engagés et expérimentés.

C’est pourquoi le Bureau CertiTRACE composé de deux comités regroupant, d’un côté, les principales écoles de jurisprudence islamique, et de l’autre, différents scientifiques et chercheurs, a rédigé et mis au point deux Cahiers des Charges, l’un alimentaire, et l’autre non-alimentaire, qui, basés sur les principes de l'OCI, respectent à la lettre les exigences des différentes écoles de jurisprudence islamique et mettent l’accent sur les conditions sanitaires et la qualité des produits. Ce bureau a érigé en référentiel une norme Halal privée : 786©, élaborée à partir de ces cahiers des charges, et mandaté deux instituts, acteurs incontournables du marché du Halal : HIFMI (Halal Institute Food Management Industry) qui s’occupe de la formation de tous les professionnels du Halal (Audits, contrôleurs, sacrificateurs) et du management ; et Halal 786, organisme de certification dont les membres sont également formés par HIFMI. Ces organismes s’appuient sur un système de traçabilité multiple : CertiTRACE Halal en totale conformité avec la norme 786©.

C’est pourquoi, tous les produits qui répondent aux exigences de cette norme (786) et bénéficient du système de traçabilité CertiTRACE Halal, reçoivent de l’institut de certification Halal 786, l’agrément CertiTRACE Halal 786.

Apposé sur un produit, l’agrément CertiTRACE Halal 786 est garant du caractère Halal de la viande, de l’élevage de l’animal, en passant par la sacrification , jusqu’à l’assiette du consommateur. 

Par l’intermédiaire de l’organisme HIFMI,  le Bureau CertiTRACE a, par ailleurs, établi un partenariat avec la société AS représentant en France, depuis le 04 mars 2012, de TSE, l'institution turque de normalisation (équivalent de ce qu'est l'AFNOR en France), membre de l'ISO.

De ce fait, les produits Halal ayant reçu l’agrément CertiTRACE Halal 786 bénéficient, dès l’or, d’une double certification.

Avec CertiTRACE Halal 786, vous n’avez jamais été aussi sûrs de manger Halal…

????? ?????? ????? 1.5 ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? .. ????? 103 ????? ?????? ???????

viande perimee arabie saoudite

????? ?????? ????? 1.5 ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? .. ????? 103 ????? ?????? ???????

 

"?????????? ???????????" ?? ??????

????? ????? ????? ?????? 103 ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ( 208 ) ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??? ???? ??????? (1505) ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? (429) ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????.

 

????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ( 339 ) ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????. ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????.

 

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Dr Teinaz

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qibla
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??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? «?????» ?? ???? ? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????.
???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????

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boeuf

????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????

???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????.

????? ?????? ???????: ???? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????.

??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ? ???:

1. ??????? ?????????.

2. ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????.

3. ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????.

4. ????? ??????? ??????.

5. ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????.

(?????? ??????? ???????)

?????: ??????? ????????? (Electrical Stunning) :

?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? (Alternating) ????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??? 1958? ? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ???????.

???? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?????. ? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? (Missed chock) ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ? ???? ?? ??? ???????(Confusional state) .

????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????.

????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????.

??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???????.

??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?????:

?. ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ???? ????????.

?. ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????????. ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???????.

??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????. ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? (Flex) ?? ????? ???????? ? ???? ????? ???? ????? ? ?? ???? ????? ?????????? ? ??? ????? 10 ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ???. ? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????.

??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?????? (???) ??????? (???) ?????. ??? ???? ?? 285 ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? 198 ????? ?? ??????? ??? .

??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? 50? 70? 90 ???? ?? 100? 200 ? 250 ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ???? 400 ??? 1000 ???? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?????.

??????: ??????? ????? ????? ???????:Carbon-Dioxide For Pre-Slaughter Anaesthesia
????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? (1950) ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??????.
??? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????. 
???? ????? ?? ?? ????? 65 ?? 70 % ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ?? 70% ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? 70% ??????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????????. ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ? ?????? ???????. 
???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????.

?????: ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? (Captive Bolt Pistol) :
???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???????. ? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ? ?? ???? ?????. 
???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ?????. ????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ? ?????? ????? ????. 
?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???????. 
??????? ????: ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ? 
????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????. 


??????: ?????? ?????? 
??????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????. 
???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??????. ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? 5 ?? 6 ?????. ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ???? ???? ?? ? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ? ????? ????. 
???? ??? ???? ??????


??????: ?????? ?????? ???????: 

??? ??? ???????? ? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ? ????? ? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????. ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????. ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? (1970) ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????. 
????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????. ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????.?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? 25% 

????? ??? ??????? ????????? 
????? ???????? : ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????. ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? : " ?? ???? ????". ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????. ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????????. ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????. ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????. ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? "?????" (Bleeding) ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???????. ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????. ???????? ????? ?? ???????. 
???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? . ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????.

???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????. ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????!! 
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????.

??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?? 120-145 ??/ ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? 260 ??/ ???? ?? ???? ? ? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????? ? ? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? 5-10 ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????. 
??? ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ? ? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????. ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ? ? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ? ???? ??: " ????? ?? ?????? ????? ! ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??????" ?!!! ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? 4/188: "????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ???? : ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ????:??? ??? ??????? . ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? 4/28 ??? ??????/6033 : ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ???: " ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ? ???????? ????? ????? ? ? ???? ?????? ". ???? ???? (????/1955).
????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????.

????? ????? ???????? ? ? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? 

???? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???????.

????? : ????? ????? ????????: 
????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???: 
1 . ??????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ???? ? ? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? . ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ???????. ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ???????. 
2 . ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ????? ? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????.

??? ??? ?? ???? (??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ) Dr. Thornton Meat hygien : "?? ??????? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ???? : ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? (???????) ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????.

??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? 1984 ? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? 4-6 ???? ??? ? ? ?? ??? ??? ???. ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ????? ? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????.

???? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? (????? ???????) ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????? 12/8/1987 ????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????:
(?? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????. 
????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.

?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ? ???? ????? ?????? ???????) 
?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? "?. ?????" ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ? ???? ????? ????????.

????? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? (13) ????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???? (23) ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???.
??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????. 
??? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????. 
????? ?????: ?? ????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????. ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ???? ? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????. ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? (????? ???????) ?? ???? ????? ???????????.

??? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????. 
??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????.


??????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?????. 

3. ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????? ????? ? ????? ???? ??? ?????. 
??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ? ? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????. 
??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ? ? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ? ??????. 
4 . ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??????. ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? (P.h) ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ?? ??? 5,5 ??? 5,8.

5. ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????. 
?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????. 
??? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????.

??? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????. 
???? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??????? ?

??????- ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? :

?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ???:

1 . ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????.

????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? . ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ? ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????. ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? . ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? 25% .

??????: ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ? ????? ?? ??? ?????? – ???? ???????? ????? – ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????.

?????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? . ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????. ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????.

2. ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??????. ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ? ????? ???? ????? ? ?? ??? ? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ? ?? ???? ?? ????? – ???? – ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????. ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ? ??????. 
??? ?????? ????? ????? ? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ? ?? ????? ????? ? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????. 
?????? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ? ?? ???? ????? ?????. 
????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????. ???? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??????. ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????.

????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? Vaso-Dilation.

??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????.

?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? Medulla Ablongata . ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????. 
????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???????.


3 . ????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ? ? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????. 
?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ???? ? (??? ??? ?? ?????? ????????)?

4 . ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????? ????? :"?? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????". 
?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ? ????? ? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????

5 . ???? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ???? . ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????. ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????.
6 . ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? 5.5 ??? 5.8 .

7. ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ?????. 
??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. 
?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????. 

??? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????.

??? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????.

?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? :
??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????. ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????. 
??? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ?????: ?? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? 13/6/1990 ? ? ??? ???: 
(??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ? ?? ?????. ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ?????? ???? ???????. 
???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????? ? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????. 
???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???? ???????. ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???????. 
? ??? ?????: ?? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???
????: ?? ???? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???. 
??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ? ? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ????? ??????. 
??? ????????: ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ? ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????. 
????? ?????: ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? . ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????? ? ?? ?????. ? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????). ??? ???? ?????????? ?. ???? . ??? ???? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ???????. ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ???? ???.

9 . ????? ??? ??????? : ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? . ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ???? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????. ??? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????. 
??????? ?? ??? : ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? (??????????) ???? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? . 
???? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? . 
??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????. 
?? ???????? ?????? : ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????. 
?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ?? ????????? ??????. 
????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????. 
???? ???????? (????? ??????) ?? ?????? : ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????????? .. ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? "??? ?????????? ??????" ???? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???????!! ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?!! ???? ???? ?? ????????!! ??? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? 08/01/2011 ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ? : (???????) ????????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? (5000) ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????...??? ?? ?????????

10. ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? : ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????????? ? ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ? ??? ???? ????? : (??? ??? ??????? ?????????????) ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????? : (??????? ??? ??????? ) ?? ??? ?? ???????????? : (????????? ??? ?????. ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????). ???? ?????? ???????:

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???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ???????. ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? : ?? ?????? ????? : ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???? ??? ? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???.
???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???? : (?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ? ?? ???? ??? ???.
?? ??????????? ?????? : ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?????..
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???? ??? ?????? ?????? (????? ????) ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? (??????) ???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????. 
????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? (??????):


????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? 
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" ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????. 
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?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ???: 
1. ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ???????. ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????. 
2. ?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? : "???? ??? ?????? ????? . ???? ???????? : ?????? ??????? ? ???? ?????? : ?????? ???????". ????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? (???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???/273) ???? ?????.
3. ?? ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????.
4. ?? ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??? ? ???? ???? ????? " ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???". ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? (??? ??????? 3/238) : " ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? . ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????????". 
5. ?? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? : ??? ????? ???? ????? ? ????? ???? ?????". ??? ?????? ?????? ?? (??? ???? ????7/78) ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? : " ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????" ??? : " ??? ????????? ????? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???". 
6. ?? ??? ???????????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????. ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? . ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????. 
??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? . ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????????????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? : ?? ??? ????? ??? ???????????????. ??? ?????? ??? ??????? : ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????.

????????????????? 
??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? : 
1 . ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????.
2 . ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????.
3 . ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? . ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ???????. ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????.
4 . ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????. 
5. ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? . ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????.
6. ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
7. ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????????? ? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????.
8. ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????.
9 . ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ? ?????? ???? ???? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????. 
10. ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????????????.
11. ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ????.
12. ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????. ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????.


????? ??????? (??? ?? ??? ???? ?. ???? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ) 

??? ?????? ?? ???????

ramadan

????? ???????? - ??????? ?????? - ????? 22 : ??? ?????? ?? ??????? - ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????.

?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????: 1986-04-13
??? ???? ?????? ??????

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Viande Halal en Islam / Viande sur laquelle on Doute

 

 

 

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La louange est à Dieu le Créateur du monde Celui Qui existe sans début, sans fin, sans endroit, sans comment et ne dépend pas du temps, rien n’est tel que Lui et Il est Celui Qui entend et Qui voit, quoi que tu puisses imaginer Dieu en est différent, et que l’élévation en degré et la préservation de sa communauté de ce qu’il craint pour elle soient accordées à notre maître MouHammad Al-’Amîn, l’Honnête, celui qui a appelé à la religion de vérité, l’islam la religion de tous les Prophètes du premier ‘Adam au dernier MouHammad.

ALLAH ta^âlâ dit dans le Qour’an éminent :

« ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????? »
(Hourrimat ^alaykoumou l-maytatou wa d-damou walaHmou l-khinzîri wa mA ‘ouhilla lighayri l-LAhi bihi wa l-mounkhaniqatou wa l-mawqôudhatou wa l-moutaraddiyatou wa n-naTîHatou wa mA ‘akala s-sabou^ou ‘illA mA dhakkaytoum wa mA dhoubiHa ^ala n-nouSoubi)

ce qui signifie : « Vous sont interdit : Al-Maytah-le cadavre-, le sang, la chair du porc, l’animal qui est égorgé en mentionnant autre que ALLAH, l’animal qui est mort étranglé, l’animal qui est frappé jusqu’à ce que mort s’en suive, l’animal qui est mort par une chute de haut, l’animal qui été tué par un ou des coups de corne d’un autre, l’animal que les fauves ont commencé à dévorer – sauf si vous l’égorgez alors qu’il est encore vivant-, et l’animal qui a été égorgé pour une offrande pour autre que ALLAH. » [sôurat Al-MA’idah / 3].

Sachez mes frères de Foi, que ALLAH ta^âlâ vous fasse miséricorde par la réussite Qu’Il accorde, que parmi les grands péchés, il y a consommer de l’animal qui n’est pas égorgé, du sang, de la viande de porc et ce qui a été égorgé en évoquant autre que le nom de ALLAH lors de son égorgement comme les associateurs qui disent : « au nom de Al-lAt et de Al-^ouzzA » lorsqu’ils égorgent. Il est également interdit de consommer ce qui a été étranglé, c’est-à-dire qui est mort par strangulation. L’animal qui est mort suite à une chute d’une montagne ou dans un puits et qui en est mort, tout comme l’animal qui a chuté dans l’eau et qui s’est noyé, l’animal qui est mort suite à un coup de corne, qu’il a reçu d’une autre bête, sauf si vous arrivez à l’égorger avant que l’animal ne se mette à trembler comme celui qui a été égorgé. Tout animal dont la vie a été ôtée sans égorgement valable selon la Loi est considéré cadavre -Maytah-.

En ce qui concerne l’égorgement valable selon la Loi, il est une condition que celui qui égorge soit musulman ou faisant parti des gens du Livre, qu’il égorge un animal licite à la consommation comme une vache ou des moutons et ce qui est de cet ordre, avec un instrument tranchant autre que les ongles et que les os. Et qu’il tranche le conduit de la respiration et le conduit de la nourriture et de la boisson. Si l’animal est électrocuté et qu’il meurt avant d’être égorgé, il n’est pas licite de le consommer. Également s’il est égorgé automatiquement à l’aide d’instruments, sans qu’ils soient actionnés par un égorgeur, il n’est pas licite d’en consommer, c’est un cadavre -Maytah- .

Chers bien-aimés, le sujet de la viande est important dans la Loi de ALLAH, il n’est pas permis d’en consommer, sauf si on sait qu’il a été égorgé d’une manière conforme à la Loi. S’il y a un doute à ce sujet, il est interdit, il n’est pas permis de commencer à en manger. Tout comme les faqîh, les jurisconsultes l’ont dit. Bien plus, l’interdiction de consommer la viande quand on ne sait pas si elle a été licite ou pas -c’est-à-dire si l’on doute si elle est licite ou si c’est un cadavre- fait l’objet de l’unanimité dans toutes les écoles et chez tous les moujtahid tout comme l’a cité le HAfidh As-Souyoutiyy et d’autres.

Mon frère musulman, ne laisse pas l’appétit de la nourriture te pousser à manger d’une nourriture qui comporte une viande sans savoir d’où elle provient. Si elle a été égorgé d’une manière légale ou pas. Si tu es chez quelqu’un qui t’as invité à partager sa nourriture ou au restaurant ou dans l’avion, garde toi de manger de la viande s’il y a un doute. Mais si tu as posé la question et que ton cœur s’est apaisé de la réponse, quand on te dit que cet animal a été égorgé correctement, il t’es permis à ce moment là d’en consommer. Mais tant que tu as le doute, cela ne t’ai pas permis. Dans le SaHîH de Mouslim, d’après ^Adiyy Ibnou Hatim, il a dit : « J’ai interrogé le Messager de ALLAH Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam au sujet du gibier, il a dit :

« ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? »

ce qui signifie : « Quand tu tires une flèche, cite le nom de ALLAH, si tu trouves le gibier mort manges-en sauf si tu l’as trouvé tombé dans l’eau, a ce moment tu ne sais pas s’il est mort de noyade ou si c’est ta flèche qui a été la cause de sa mort » Ainsi à cause du doute sur le caractère licite le Messager de ALLAH Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam a interdit d’en consommer. C’est à partir de ce Hadîth et des textes semblables que les savants ont déduits l’interdiction de consommer de la viande, lorsqu’il y a un doute sur son caractère licite. Ils ont été unanimes sur cela.

Pour ce qui est du Hadîth de Al-Boukhâriyy d’après ^Aichah que ALLAH l’agrée, que des gens ont dit au Prophète Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam :

ce qui signifie : « Des gens nous ramènent de la viande, nous ne savons s’ils ont cités le nom de ALLAH ou pas sur cette viande. » Le Prophète Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam a dit ce qui signifie : « évoquez vous le nom de ALLAH et mangez en ». Ce Hadîth est parvenu sur l’égorgement fait par des gens entrés en islam récemment car ^Aichah a dit : « Ô messager de ALLAH, des gens qui, il n’y a pas longtemps étaient mécréant nous ramènent de la viande et nous ne savons s’ils ont cités ou pas le nom de ALLAH sur cette viande ».

Il a répondu : « Évoquez vous le nom de ALLAH vous-même et mangez ». Cela veut dire que ces viandes sont licites car elles proviennent d’animaux égorgés par des musulmans. Même s’il n’y a pas si longtemps qu’ils étaient mécréants, c’est-à-dire qu’ils sont entrés en islam récemment. Et ce n’est pas préjudiciable si vous ne savez pas si ces musulmans, quand ils ont égorgés ont évoqué le nom de ALLAH ou pas. Mais vous, citez le nom de ALLAH quand vous allez en manger, cela est recommandé et non pas obligatoire. En effet, évoquer le nom de ALLAH est recommandé lors de l’égorgement. Si celui qui égorge n’évoque pas le nom de ALLAH, il reste licite de consommer de cet animal égorgé. En résumé, mes chers bien-aimés, il convient de s’assurer avant de consommer de la viande, si elle est égorgée de manière légale ou pas.

Ce n’est pas toute viande dans le marché ou dans des boîtes qui sont licite. Si tu t’es assuré qu’elle n’est pas licite ou si tu as un doute, alors n’en mange pas, cela vaut mieux que d’avoir un plaisir suivi par un feu de l’enfer.

Le Prophète véridique, celui qui est notre bien-aimé élu Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam a dit :

?? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????
(man akala tayyiban wa ^amila fi sounnatin wa amina n-naçou bawa’iqahou dakhala l-jannah)

ce qui signifie : « Celui dont la nourriture est licite et qu’il a agit de manière conforme à la sounnah, (c’est à dire la manière conforme à la loi musulmane) et qui n’a pas été injuste envers les gensil rentre au Paradis », [Rapporté par At-Tirmidhiyy]. Et comment la personne peut elle agir de manière conforme à la Loi si elle n’apprend pas ? Comment s’assure t-elle que sa prière, que son jeûne et tout ses actes d’adorations sont valables, si ce n’est pas la science ? Comment peut-il savoir que ce qu’il mange, ce qu’il boit et ce qu’il porte et là où il habite provient du licite, si ce n’est pas la science ? C’est pour cela que Al-Boukhâriyy, que ALLAH lui fasse miséricorde, a dit dans son SaHîH c’est-à-dire : « Chapitre : [Apprendre] la science avant de parler et d’agir ».

Et la parole du Prophète Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam : ce qui signifie : « les gens ont été épargnés de son injustice, l’injustice de sa main et l’injustice de sa langue. » Tout comme le Messager honoré a dit : c’est à dire que parmi les caractères du musulman accompli, c’est que le musulman soit épargné de sa langue et de sa main. Nous demandons à ALLAH Qu’Il nous accorde de bien suivre le Messager de ALLAH, MouHammad Salla l-Lâhou ^alayhi wa sallam, qu’il nous suffise par ce qui est licite et qui nous fait passer de ce qui est interdit, qu’il nous suffise par son obéissance et qu’il nous épargne de lui désobéir et qu’il fasse que nous soyons au nombre de ses meilleurs esclaves.

????? ??? ?? ????????
La louange est à ALLAH, le Créateur du monde.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal-from-2014

UAE leader

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

Source : halal media

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

 

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be the first Middle East country to regulate halal certificate and logo from next year for all food products claiming to be halal, according to a senior official from the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Authority (Esma).

The announcement comes as part of a halal regulations package, which will also include halal certification for  cosmetics and perfumes  as well as  clothes and accessories .

 

“It is His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai’s dream to make Dubai the capital of the halal economy and this initiative is part of that project. Through this process we will make sure what people consume assuming it is halal is actually halal,” said Mohammad

- See more at: http://halalmedia.net/all-halal-food-sold-in-uae-must-be-halal-certified-from-2014/#sthash.O0Xe3Djm.dpuf

tete-limousine

 

Face aux idées recues et aux reportages sur le halal , voulant faire croire qyue les musulmans ne mangent que les avants car moins cher et de moindre qualité.

Voici un reportage sur la Limousine et sa viande tendre pour les grillades. Tout est bon dans la Limousine.

fr3 limousine

qibla

Rapport : Le consommateur musulman est l’acteur incontournable du Halal

 

L’association "intégrité", créée en 1979, a impulsé la création de "Tayyibah" (un rassemblement d’environ 70 associations musulmanes) qui a permis d’établir une définition du Halal validée par le Professeur Muhammad Hamidullah [1] et la ligue Islamique mondiale, à Paris en 1982.

Définition du Professeur Muhammad Hamidullah : Paris le 15 août 1982 :

Sont réputées viandes musulmanes (halal), les viandes issues exclusivement d’abattages rituels effectués, sans étourdissement préalable, par un musulman, de la manière suivante : 
- Tourner la gorge de l’animal vers la direction de la Kaaba (à la Mecque, vers le sud-est en France) 
- Invocation du nom de Dieu par le sacrificateur, avant la saignée, sur chaque bête, au moyen de la formule : « Bismillah, Allahou Akbar »(c.-à-d. Au nom de Dieu, Dieu est le plus grand) 
- Section au niveau du larynx, à l’aide d’un instrument tranchant, des veines jugulaires, des artères carotides et de la trachée artère, sans toutefois entamer la colonne vertébrale,

Mais cette définition a été contournée par la majorité des acteurs musulmans sur le marché Halal, y compris les trois grandes mosquées (Paris, Evry et Lyon). Plus grave encore, nous assistons, régulièrement à des tentatives de la part des responsables de la mosquée de Paris à légaliser la généralisation de l’étourdissement (électrocution, électrisation, pistolet d’abattage, gazage) des animaux dans le cadre de l’abattage religieux musulman.

La création d’ASIDCOM, en 2006, est alors, une continuité de la lutte des consommateurs musulmans pour faire valoir le respect de leurs droits, faire connaitre leurs vrais besoins et exiger sa reconnaissance par les différentes institutions et les acteurs de la vie économique. Le consommateur musulman quitte progressivement sa posture de l’acteur passif et oublié du halal.

Nous allons voir dans ce nouveau rapport d’ASIDCOM intitulé " Le consommateur musulman est l’acteur incontournable du Halal" qu’il adopte progressivement un rôle de plus en plus actif concernant la question des produits halal. En effet, ASIDCOM a essayé dans ce rapport d’analyser et mettre en valeur les réponses et avis des consommateurs récoltés par trois enquêtes d’opinion menées sur le terrain. Ces analyses ont pour objectifs :

- connaitre l’avis des consommateurs sur divers sujets liés au Halal 
- connaitre l’état d’esprit du consommateur et le degré de sa maitrise / connaissance du sujet 
- collecter quelques informations utiles pour d’éventuelles réformes ou améliorations sur le circuit du Halal


[1] Muhammad Hamidullah est un érudit, théologien et chercheur musulman (Maître de conférences CNRS de 1954 à 1978), diplômé en Droit musulman international, et docteur en philosophie et docteur ès lettres (lien page wikipédia)

Great Britain :religious slaughter will remain in place for both Jewish and Muslim ritual slaughter.

 

 

 

 

shechita rabbin

 

Henry Grunwald, chairman of Shechita UK, the British Jewish community’s shechita advocacy organization, said that Shechita UK is pleased that the government “remains committed” to shechita. But Grunwald also warned that many groups remain firmly opposed to shechita and are committed to continue to work to modify shechita in ways halakha (Jewish law) does not allow – or, in some cases, to work to ban shechita outright.

British Government Decides To Allow Shechita Without Prior Stunning – For Now
Shmarya Rosenberg • FailedMessiah.com

The British Jewish community’s shechita (Jewish ritual slaughter) defense campaign says it was successful in convincing the government to resist pressure from animal rights groups – led by the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals – and the National Secular Society to mandate the stunning of animals before shechita, The JC reported.

The UK’s Department for Environment and Rural Affairs (Defra) announced that the status quo governing religious slaughter will be remain in place for both Jewish and Muslim ritual slaughter.

Stunning animals before slaughter is not allowed under most understandings of Jewish law.

Henry Grunwald, chairman of Shechita UK, the British Jewish community’s shechita advocacy organization, said that Shechita UK is pleased that the government “remains committed” to shechita.

But Grunwald also warned that many groups remain firmly opposed to shechita and are committed to continue to work to modify shechita in ways halakha (Jewish law) does not allow – or, in some cases, to work to ban shechita outright.

THE MUSLIM METHOD OF SLAUGHTER Presented by Dr. Abdul Majid Katme

Dr Abdelamjid Katme

 

AN UP-TO-DATE ASSESSMENT OF THE MUSLIM METHOD OF SLAUGHTER

Presented by Dr. Abdul Majid Katme, (Chairman of the Islamic Medical Association in the UK) at the UFAW* Symposium on Humane Slaughter and Euthanasia, held at the Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, on the 18th and 19th September, 1986.

*Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (in association with the Humane Slaughter Association).

In the name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful

AN UP-TO-DATE ASSESSMENT OF THE MUSLIM METHOD OF SLAUGHTER

I N D E X

Terminology

Islam in Brief

Food & Dietary

Laws

Mercy

Health

The Islamic View Towards Animals.

The Islamic Method of Slaughtering. : The Best Method of Slaughtering.

The Methods of Slaughter used today.

Conclusion.

Appendix.

References.

 

 

TERMINOLOGY

I would prefer to call this talk 'An up-to-date assessment of the Islamic method of slaughter' as the Islamic view towards slaughter is what we would like to discuss here today; Islam has got permanent fixed rules and teachings which do not change with time but Muslims sometimes, especially when they are not practicing, do not adhere properly and strictly to the code of Islam.

Before going into this subject, I think it would be wise, for the benefit of this large, non-Muslim audience, to give an idea about Islam, a faith with 1.5-2 million followers here in the UK. I am sure that this explanation about our background will clarify many of the issues which we would like to raise during the talk today and will make you understand the importance and wisdom behind our Islamic Law in connection with slaughtering of animals for food.

Islam is the last, and final religion, after Judaism and Christianity. Muhammad, peace be upon him, was the last Prophet giving this message to mankind. The word Islam means voluntary, total and full submission to the words and orders of the creator, ALLAH (s.w.t) the one and only creator, the creator of Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them). Islam is a full, comprehensive religion and code of life which contains all the instructions for the different aspects of life - health, nutrition economic, education, science, morality etc. - for the individual male and female, for the family and for the society at large. Its rules and orders are permanently fixed, forever, applying to any one place at any one time.

We therefore believe that religious law should not be interfered with by any authority.

The two basic references for Muslim laws are:

The Qur'an (The final Book of Revelation, revealed to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him).The Sunnah [sayings, actions and behavior of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).]

ALLAH (s.w.t) is the Creator of the universe, our bodies - with its anatomy and physiology - and the Creator of all the animals.The same Creator has given us the appropriate laws, especially in connection with food and diet, which will never, ever, lead to any contradiction or any suffering or ill-health. The laws of real science go hand in hand with the laws of ALLAH (s.w.t)

Food and dietary laws are an important part of Islam and we have all the details about:

what food to eat and drink

what food and drink to avoid;

how to eat and drink (i.e. etiquette);

when to eat and drink

what animals to eat and

which ones to avoid;

how to slaughter the animals.

All this, and a lot more, have been stated and explained in the Qur'an and by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in his sayings and practice and to eat halal (lawful) food is a form of worship, like prayer.

Mercy is another characteristic of Islam:

mercy to all animals; to children;

to women;

to the elderly,

 and even to plants.

A person can go to paradise for feeding a thirsty dog! A person can go to hell for starving a cat!

Health is also another characteristic embedded in all the teachings and instructions of Islam. Anything halal (lawful) will lead you to good health, free from disease and suffering; conversely, anything haram (unlawful) will inevitably lead to disease and suffering of one kind or another. For example adultery leads to venereal diseases and other problems; homosexuality leads to AIDS, etc.; alcohol abuse gives brain damage, liver disease and many other medical, psychological and social problems (all these are forbidden).

Fourteen hundred years ago, Islam talked about the relationships between diet and disease by encouraging the Halal (lawful) diet and drink. Allow me to establish a few basic facts in Islam, which are relevant to our subject today. It is forbidden to consume blood, in any form, and, medically, we know that blood is harmful to health. As it contains toxins and urea, and may contain bacteria, parasites viruses new chemicals and drugs etc. Besides this, blood can lead to poisoning when still in meat to be consumed.

(It is also forbidden in the Old and New Testaments to cosume blood.

The Bible says: -

"And they smote the Philistines that day from Mishmash to Aijalon: and the people were very faint. And the people flew upon the spoil, and took: sheep, and oxen. And calves, and slew them on the ground: and the people did eat them with the blood. Then they told Saul. Saying. Behold, the people sin against the Lord. In that they eat with the blood. And he said. Ye have transgressed: roll a great stone unto me this day. And Saul said. Disperse yourselves among the people, and say unto them. Bring me hither every man his ox. And every man his sheep. And slay them here, and eat: and sin not against the Lord in eating with the blood."

(Samuel 15: 31-34).

"Only be sure that thou eat not the blood: for the blood is the life: and thou mayest not eat the life with the flesh. Thou shalt not eat it. thou shalt pour it upon the earth as water."

(Deuteronomy 12:23-24))

It is forbidden to eat the meat of an animal, which has died before being slaughtered (by any kind of stunning, strangulation - chemical or physical -, a blow to the head -concussion or percussion -, or due to a fall etc.) Only meat killed in the Halal (lawful) way is allowed to be consumed (dead meat with all the clotted blood in it is very harmful to health).

ALLAH (s.w.t) says in the Qur'an 'Forbidden to you (for food) are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine and that over which has been invoked other than the name of ALLAH (s.w.t) that which has been killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a headlong fall or by being gored to death; that which has been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless you are able to slaughter it (in due form) and that which is sacrificed on stone (altars).

( Surah Al-Maida 5/3)

It is also forbidden (Haram) to eat carnivorous animals such as lions, tigers, etc., carnivorous birds like eagles and hawks, scavengers like vultures, mules, donkeys, rats, mice, dogs, cats and frogs. Some seafood's, however, are allowed (halal) Eating meat is not compulsory in Islam, but highly recommended. Slaying animals for food has been described, clearly, by the Prophet Muhammad, (peace be upon him), in his saying,

'Verily, Allah (s.w.t) has prescribed proficiency in all things; thus, if you kill, kill well and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters'

(Sahih Muslim).

In addition, it has been practiced by him (the Prophet) in the most perfect and humane way (and he is a Prophet and a model to follow).

The Islamic View Of the Animals:

Again, to make you understand the religious concept of slaughtering, I would like to give you a brief idea about how Islam views animals and what the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad. (peace be upon him) have said about the animal kingdom and its place in Islamic teaching.

The biggest chapter in the Qur'an is Al-Baqarah (The Cow). It contains 286 verses, many of which are verses of guidance and Islamic instruction for the believers.

Other chapters of the Qur'an with titles related to the animal kingdom are:

Cattle, Bees, Ants, Spider, Elephant.

According to the Muslim scholars and scientists, these titles and names of the animals carry behind them some wisdom and interesting, meaningful ideas. Look at how these animals have the honor to have chapters of the Holy Book named after them!

There are also other animal names mentioned in the Qur'an with the stories relevant to them:

camel, mule, donkey, horse, snake, locusts, whale, pig, fox, house-fly, carnivorous animals and birds, frog, bird, calf, fish, sheep, monkey, lice, dog, goat, bee and many others.

Preservation of the species was done a long time ago by ALLAH's (s.w.t) order in Noah's Ark, without which we would not know of any animals in our lives today. This is also a reminder for us to preserve the species in our lifetime and at any one time.Animals were created before mankind.

All animals are created for the benefit of man (and there should be a kind, loving relationship and treatment given by man to them).

Animals can be used, gently and kindly in the way that they have been created, i.e. you do not ride a cow The behavior of each animal is a sign of the Excellent Maker and Creator.

Each animal has the right to sanctity of life and this life is taken from some by the permission of ALLAH (s.w.t) and for good reasons only for food, by the most humane and merciful ways of killing.

ALLAH (s.w.t) says in the Qur'an:

'There is not an animal on Earth nor a bird that flies by its wings, but they are community like you.'

(The Cattle, 6/38)

The word "Community" is very interesting; here we say 'Chinese Community, Turkish Community' and we imply that this community has its own natural habits, language and special way of communication, special ways of food and eating, in recreation and mating, rearing their offspring and each one is respected individually with his or her own rights. This key-word 'community' was mentioned 1,400 years ago in the Qur'an to stimulate mankind to study all the different behavior and needs and to respect the rights of the animals.

The Qur'an says, 'they are a communities like you.' So the rights of the animals in Islam, and their need for normal physiological behavior are::

Food (no genetically modified food) and drink (healthy, natural), suckling;Facilities for normal elimination (defecation and urination);Facilities for normal standing, walking, running and flying;Facilities for normal mating and copulation (with no outside interference of their reproductive system) and normal rearing of their offspring (full motherhood and no separation of mother and baby); no beating, cruelty or any harsh treatment to be treated individually with full respect for the body;Facilities for recreation; resting, dozing, lying-down and play facilities;Facilities for social behavior;Full sleeping facilities and protection from harsh weather;Facilities for individual comfort; grooming, playing etc.

There should be full recognition of the psychological needs; animals should not be slaughtered in front of others nor should the knife be sharpened before them; the baby should not be forcibly removed from the mother.

The welfare of the animals must come first, before monetary profit.

It is forbidden in Islam, to kill an animal in a cruel way or for pleasure, to use an animal as a target, to cut a part of it whilst still alive or finally, to set animals fighting against each other.

The above points are why Islam is against the following: battery cage (factory farming), fox hunting, bull fighting, cock fighting, dog fighting, using the animals for targets, culling seals, killing frogs, caging the animal, most vivisection. the abuse of drugs in animals and the interference with their organs sexuality [castration, sterility etc.(reproduction)]

As you know, all of these problems of cruelty to animals are endemic and epidemic in the Western society so you can see that there is a lot to do today in order to relieve the suffering of animals. This is especially so as the complaints have been arriving, day after day (about 50,000) of animal cruelty and the RSPCA have been treating more than 192.000 animals per year, due to men's cruelty!

We believe that a God-conscious personality is the best defense against human cruelty to animals and I am sure that this would save the RSPCA a lot of work.

The Islamic method of slaughtering animals for food (DHABH)

In the beginning I would like to mention that the words of ALLAH [the Creator and the Legislator (swt)]are the absolute; 100 per cent right, 100 per cent safe and 100 per cent humane and cannot be put to test or examination by a human who is created, who is limited in his outlook and who cannot see or know everything. However, true scientific study can discover, sometimes, the wisdom and reason behind some Divine teachings or orders.

I am talking now about a religious belief, and human right which cannot be justified by philosophical argument of scientific testing or human debate or false assumptions and wrong conclusions. However to our surprise, when we have looked to our Islamic method of slaughter, and looked also to the other methods of slaughter today, and tried to make comparisons or, as they say, an 'up-to-date assessment' we were surprised to discover many of the good reasons behind our method and their signs of their Divine source and to also discover the failures, problems, harm and suffering of all the other methods which are man-made and which have been shown by many scientists in their study and research.

Before going into the detail of the Islamic method of slaughter, please allow me to mention and discuss together what the best method of slaughter is, generally.

I am sure that you will agree with me that the best method of slaughter should have the following criteria:

Allows for draining most of the blood out;Causes no stress to the animal;Does not cause death before the actual slaughter;Found with no fault in any scientific study;Proved to be humane' , causing no "pain" or suffering or cruelty, even to a few individual animals;Causes no damaging or harmful effects to the quality of the meat;Found to be a sure way of death (reliable);Found to be irreversible (slowly and gradually progressing to death);With only one way of killing (direct method);To be practical and realistic; quick and easy to perform in any society, in any place;'Very economical' (not a lot of machinery and equipment, etc.);Being more familiar to the animal, with less machinery and restraint (with a less threatening atmosphere);Safe to perform (no electricity, gas or shocks, etc.);Accepted by the community consuming the meat;Liked by the slaughter man, with no psychological ill-effects on him;Blessed for the believers by ALLAH (s.w.t).

Blackmore (1982) has identified the important factors which should be considered when choosing the most suitable method of slaughter as: humane aspects; capital and running costs; ease of operation and operator safety; secondary effects on the carcass and by-product quality, statutory and religious requirements.

In the light of these important factors, I have been expanding the criteria as shown above, to try to make the matter easier to understand. I would like you to remember these points and check them very well with the Islamic method of slaughter and the other methods of slaughter used today.

The Islamic (halal) method of slaughter can be described as follows:

The animal has to be lawful to eat, alive, healthy, to be slaughtered only for the reason of food, in the name of The Creator, ALLAH (s.w.t) and not for any other reasons (it has to be well-fed, not thirsty handled and moved gently and individually).

The slaughter-man must be in possession of a clear mind and not under the influence of alcohol or drugs, trained in the job, with an awareness of what he is doing.

The act of slaughter (Al-Dhabh) starts by pronouncing the name of ALLAH (s.w.t), The Creator (BISMILLAH ALLAHU AKBAR ), to take His permission and in order to make the Slaughter-man accountable and responsible and to give compassion and mercy to the animal during this act. Besides, any action we do in our daily life should be commenced with the mention of the name of ALLAH (s.w.t ) The Most Kind, The Most Merciful.

The Qur'an says:

"And eat not of that where on ALLAH's name has not been mentioned for verily it is abomination.

( Surah Anam 6/121)

Then, by a very, very sharp knife (which should be kept like a surgeon's knife in sharpness and cleanliness, as previously stated by DR Ghulam Khan (UFAW, 1971), a Deep swift cut done instantaneously and quickly to the blood vessels of the neck (the two caroid arteries which carry blood to the brain and head, the two jugular veins which bring blood from the brain back to the heart), the trachea (windpipe) and the oesophagus (gullet), but the central nervous system (the spinal cord) should be kept safe and intact (not cut).

This deep, large cut through all the blood vessels of the neck causes acute blood loss and haemorrhagic shock: we know the blood is under great pressure , especially in the big carotid arteries (systolic pressure ) and at high speed and, according to physical law, the pressure always goes from the high to low resistance - the point of the cut is the scene of low resistance for blood to and from the brain. As we have a fully intact, alive heart, so most of the blood is going to be pumped and poured out instantaneously and quickly under pressure leading to a rapid fall in the blood pressure. Thus depriving the brain of its main source of oxygen and glucose, and with no blood which is necessary to keep the animal alive and functioning and able to deal with any perceptive sensation this leads to anoxia and almost immediate loss of consciousness (anesthetization or "stunning" ). The cerebrospinal fluid pressure falls even more rapidly than the blood pressure because of the jugular veins being cut, and this results in a deep shock and more loss of consciousness.

The animal, at this stage after the cut, is in a stable and quiet state with no movement or any distressed behavior. One would assume, if there was any pain or suffering, it would kick, move or show signs. After this short resting phase, and because the brain is deprived of oxygen and blood due to the huge amount of bleeding, the heartbeats increase in order to increase the flow of blood to the brain and other deprived areas. Tonic and clonic involuntary contractions and convulsions start and occur as automatic physiological reflexes in order to send and push blood up, especially to the brain. These contractions and convulsions are 'painless' (not, as the layman would imagine, that the kicking is due to the pain) especially when the animal is already unconscious and still has an intact spinal cord with safe nerve centers to the limbs, muscles and organs. So, we have a huge amount of bleeding from the initial cut then blood loss is continuing with the squeezing pressure of these contractions and convulsions, leading to maximum bleeding-out and less retention of blood in the carcass, giving a better quality of meat [both safer and healthier (this is like direct method of slaughter, "but without stunning")].

I would like to end this section of my talk with at least one testimony from, for example, Lord Horder GCVO, MD, FRCP, who explained this type of slaughtering scientifically (and without the use of stunning):

'The animal loses consciousness immediately. It is difficult to conceive a more painless and rapid mode of death; for a few seconds after the cut is made, the animal makes no movement its body is then convulsed, the convulsive movements continue for about a minute and then cease. The interpretation of this fact is clear: the cut is made by a knife so sharp and so skillfully handled that a state of syncope with its associated unconsciousness follows instantaneously upon the severing of the blood pressure. The movement of the animal which begins at about 90 seconds are epileptiform in nature and are due to the blood-less state of the brain (cerebral ischemia with complete anoxaemia). Sensation has been abolished at the moment of the initial syncope.'

Of course, there have been many other statements by eminent scientists giving the same explanations and conclusions about the direct act of slaughtering such as DR Leonard Hill (1923), Sir Lovatt Evans, Professor Harold Burrow, I M Levingen (1979), Professor F R Bell. Mr. Openshaw, Mr. Hayhurst etc. (Some are quoted, in Impact Magazine 1985).

Let me quote Prof. Leonard Hill, F.R.C.V.S, who strongly believed and expressed his views in his article – that the incision applied in the Ritual Slaughter causes no pain. Any Surgeon today knows that sudden big injuries are not felt at the time of infliction. Pain comes later when the wound is (septic, and) inflamed. Structures beneath the skin apart from isolated sensory nerve endings are insensitive to the knife.

Apart from the clear Divine laws and orders to us, and the clear physiological and scientific evidence, I would like to mention one golden rule in Islam which, again, fits into the perfection of mercy to every individual animal.

The rule states "Any action or method which will definitely lead to some harm damage or suffering is to be rejected or, any action which can be suspected to lead to a prohibited act is also to be rejected (e.g. eating dead animals or consuming blood etc.). So any method of slaughtering which can give us more blood or a dead animal [before the cut (for slaughtering) is made] is rejected"

Two facts are indisputably established by the above Professor:

a) That a big injury such as throat cutting is not felt at the moment of infliction.
b) That the cutting of big arteries in the throat instantly arrests the circulation in the brain and abolishes consciousness.

Prof. Charles Lovett Evans, F.R.C.V.S., has this to say:-

" As anyone who has ever witnessed the act is well aware, the animal lies absolutely still the moment the vessels arc cut, and it is only a minute or so later that asphyxia! convulsions set in. Consciousness we know is lost long before this " .

" On physiological principles, it is clear that when such large vessels are severed the arterial blood pressure falls at once to a very low level, moreover the carotid arteries being severed, much of the blood supply to the brain is immediately lost and the result is immediate loss of consciousness. To consider that the animal suffers pain is, in my opinion, quite absurd. I consider the method to be equal to any ".

Prof. Leonard Hill says that no death could be more merciful, taking into account that the animal unlike man, has no knowledge or fear of impending death. The death is as quiet and merciful as that inflicted on murderers by hanging; to them, of course, the whole of this agony is in the advancing fear of death which is dated and timed and known to the victim.

Methods of slaughter used today

1.The captive bolt pistol
used commonly for cattle, calves and goats. It is the shooting, by a gun or pistol in the forehead (mechanical method) by a blank cartridge or compressed air. It could be penetrating or non-penetrating (percussion stunning). It breaks the skull, shatters and destroys the brain. A rod of steel is introduced in the skull hole to smash, cut and destroy the brain [pithing:now to be prohibited in UK and Europe by January 2001]. All this occurs before the real slaughtering cut is made. Recently, a new method by which a steel needle to penetrate the skull and brain and in which air is injected to cause intercranial pressure has been developed.

Problems, harm and results of this method have been reported in different scientific and Government reports, as follows:

Improper stunning (failure of stunning leading to re-stunning and double shots (FAWC 1982 and 1984);Paralysis of the animal while still conscious (FAWC 1982 and 1984);'Depressed skull fracture' and considerable damage to the brain (FAWC 1984);Brain contamination (Blackmore 1979);Blood splash (extranvasation of blood from vessels Into muscle and meat with some clotting of the blood) (Blackmore 1979);Brain hemorrhage (Blackmore 1979);Bruising and injuries from the heavy fall of the animal after the shot;Death reported by Lawton (1971); Temple Grandin (1980) stated that tests on sheep and calves indicated that penetrating captive bolt stunning actually kills the animal;Damage or harm to the meat. Marple (1977) stated 'Captive bolts should be discontinued in view of theirdetrimental effect on meat quality. (Quoted by Biala 1983)

We know that this method is still widely practiced, especially in the UK!

2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
it is done by moving the animal through a room which contains a mixture of CO2 and air (about 65/70% CO2 by volume). It is used only for pigs. It is a form of chemical strangulation. CO2 is a harmful gas to be inside the body.

Problems and harm reported include;

Considerable, unacceptable stress (violent excitation, general agitation and convulsions).'CO2 stunning is more stressful than either properly applied electrical or captive bolt stunning' (Temple Grandin 1980).Suffocation, strangulation and death to the animal before the cut; death was reported by Glen (1971).Toxic effect of the gas on the blood and physiology.It is definitely a cruel way for the animal and I would like to quote here also from FAWC (1984) when they discussed pain; 'It is doubtful whether the animal feels pain or is even conscious'. This method has been banned in Holland and many other European countries

3. Electrical Stunning
could be to head and brain only or to head and back or to the legs, and there are three varieties:

a. Low Voltage Electrical Stunning by a pair of scissors-like tongs with circular or rectangular electrodes which are usually immersed in a saline solution then applied to the side of the head. Voltage is not less than 75 volts (50 Hz mains frequency) for not less than seven seconds.

Problem and harm with this method include:

It is cruel, by giving an electric shock directly, with no anesthesia;paralysis while the animal is conscious (pain);doubt about the effect and feeling of pain;unreliable: missed shots and re-stunning;

Recovery of the animal usually occurs within 30-40 seconds. Electric stunning only induces paralysis, not unconsciousness, leaving the animal helpless but completely conscious to pain. (E.H. Callow from his book 'Food Hygiene)

Some scientists and physiologists have expressed serious misgivings; some are of the opinion that the animal is merely paralyzed by the electric current and so prevented from making a sound or a movement while fully conscious and experiences great pain as the current passes through its body. Such views are shared by the following Professors and Scientists:

a) Prof. A.C. Ivey (North Western University of America)

b) Prof. M.J. Hertz, of France

c) Prof. Roos & Koopmans, Holland.

Stunning does not first involve passing an electric current through the animal's body. The magnitude of the current passed must be adequate; voltage of higher rating could lead to bone fractures. Voltage of lower rating produces electric convulsions without inducing unconsciousness. A lower voltage rating needs longer application and this being a matter of judgment, the human element could lead to failure. The variations in the sizes of animals and their individual resistance to the current are also important considerations.

Let me quote the following petition of Meat Packers in Denmark to the Danish Government:-

"Stunning with electricity causes extravasation in the meat, sanguinary intestines and fractures in the spinal column, pelvis, shoulder blades, through the shock. The blood in the meat makes it more susceptible to putrefaction and has detrimental effect on taste."

b. High Voltage Electric Stunning by using an electric shock of 300-400 volts, commonly used for pigs and sheep.

Problems and harm with this method:

It is very cruel by giving a high electric shock (electrocution to a conscious animal).

As a doctor, I have been practicing for more than 10 years and giving electric shocks ('stunning') (Electro-Convulsive Therapy - ECT) to patients (WITH MENTAL ILLNES) but only after a general anaesthetic. The Medical Council would strike my name from the Register if I should ever dare to give ECT without anaesthesia because it is very cruel to do so. I wonder, is it not cruel to do this to an animal too? Although the voltage used in ECT is smaller than that used for animals, is it not still cruel?

"Electric stunning of calves by the 'head only' method is inhumane in all circumstances". (Blackmore 1982);

Ventricular fibrillation, cardiac inhibition, cardiac disfunction, cardiac arrest and death; "Head to back stunning induced a cardiac arrest in all the sheep". (Gregory and Wotton, 1984);

Bone-shattering;Stress: ">From a physiological standpoint, the stunned animal is more highly stressed". (Althen 1977 quoted by Temple Grandin 1980);High level of blood splashing in the carcass (Gilbert, Blackmore, and Warrington); "Electric stunning raised the blood pressure by 31/2 times"Pain and sensation;

I would like to quote, 'It is difficult to determine the sensitivity of an animal to pain during the first few seconds of stunning while the electric current is applied.' (FAWC 1984)

I also quote Baldwin 1971 (quoted by Biala 1983): "The question whether the animal is suffering pain during the period of consciousness in not so readily appropriate to objective experimental investigation".

c. Electrified Water Bath for Poultry Stunning 'The birds are suspended on the shackle (upside down) then the head is intended to come into contact with the water and the passage of an electric shock through the brain'. (FAWC 1982)

Problems and harm with this method:

A very cruel way to give the electric shock, especially in this uncomfortable position;Drowning and suffocation resulting in death.It was well-documented that some birds were taken, still alive to the scalding tank (to remove the skin and feathers) (Heath et al 1983). "One-third of the birds are dead (mitah) in the stunner and one-third are not stunned". (FAWC 1982).Death from the stunner;

"A substantial number were killed as a result of the shock from the stunner". (24% dead in UK, MAFF 1999, 17 to 37% in USA) In this report, they emphasized, clearly, eight reasons why stunning may not be satisfactory (please see the report for details)].

Paralysis by failure of stunning.

With regard to pain, apart from the above suffering, the FAWC reported "a substantial number maystill be sensitive to pain".

I would like to conclude this aspect of pain by quoting from the same poultry report of the FAWC;

"The physiological aspects of the stunning of poultry are not well understood and criteria for establishing insensitivity to pain, suitable for use in working condition, may well be unreliable".

Conclusion

As we have seen in all these methods of slaughtering today, the following are prevalent and are taken from 36 scientific studies and research papers:*

Stress to the animal (in at least 7 studies)

Death before sticking (in at least 7 studies)Harmful effects in the quality of the meat (in at least 4 studies)Internal hemorrhage, blood splash, speckle, salt and pepper hemorrhage as a result of stunning (in at least 8 studies)Pain (shown in at least 10 scientific studies) which throws doubt on the ability to measure pain in the animal and hints that the animal may be suffering pain in the different methods of slaughter used.EEG (Electro-encephalograph): there are at least 7 studies which throw doubt on thevalidity of this measure that the animal is conscious or has lost consciousness.

We still do not understand Stunning; what it does exactly and how it stuns the animal (even in ECT for the human, we also do not know what it does and how it works). We are still unable to define pain and sensation of the animal (and we will be unlikely to do so) and to understand the loss of consciousness and its relation to pain.

I would like to quote Gregory and Wotton (1985): 'There is as yet no unequivocable scientific evidence which shows how electrical stunning stuns an animal'.

Also, they said,' There is no information on the brain (glucose and oxygen thresholds) required to support consciousness and memory retention respectively.'

Many scientists opposed to the use of stunning: Van der Wal –78, Wernberg –79, Mcloughlin –71, Pollard –73, winstanley –81, and Marple –77, etc.

With regard to Pain. I would like to quote from the FAWC Report (1985), 'There is a lack of scientific evidence to indicate at what stage in the process of losing consciousness the ability to feel pain ceases.'

More research should be undertaken to establish:

Signs which indicate that the animal is completely insensible,

To what extent reflex actions and movements post-stunning and sticking indicate an awareness of pain.' (FAWC 1985)

I also quote Baldwin 1971, (quoted by Biala1983):"The question whether thr animal is suffering pain during the period of consciousness is not so readily appropriate to objective experimental investigation".

On the 3rd April 1985, The Guardian stated, in an article 'Second Opinion' about "Pain; by any other definition", 'The Government stated in its White Paper (Cmnd 8883) about measuring pain in an animal. 'there is, and can be, no definition of the term'.

The Times newspaper similarly has mentioned, on the 3rd September 1984, in an article entitled "Animals and experiments, Government's Bill will lead to new guidelines on pain" How can anyone know the extent of the pain an animal is suffering? ... There is no means of measuring pain ... a measurement of pain in not possible.'(with all this ignorance... How can any one be sure ... and accuse us of inflicting pain to the animal and be cruel!)

It is clearly, beyond any doubt, the least to say that the assumption of stunning is questionable, and it is quite unfair for the RSPCA, FAWC and others to attack Muslims (and Jews), criticizing their slaughtering methods, and to recommend new laws, enforcing stunning, which have no scientific basisand are unreliable, owing to the problems, harm and cruelty resulting from its practice. (People in glass houses should not throw stones!) It would be useful to hear the Christian viewpoint and why they have changed methods. What is the psychology behind this misconception and misunderstanding?

It is mistaken to identify the cut on the animal with oneself, thinking it is causing pain.

I would like to quote Ray & Scott from their book 'The Humane Emergency of Farm Animals' (UFAW):

'So far as actual physical suffering is concerned, men often identify themselves with the animal they kill and assess pain in terms of their own feeling. To some extent, at least, this attitude is justified but, whereas man is invariably conscious of the inevitability and significance of death, animals usually lack such apprehension unless they are badly handled and feel menaced"

" Human feelings, however, should as far as possible not be allowed to influence the use of the most humane techniques".

In addition, we are insulting a dumb creature which cannot express it's feelings or sensations by speech, etc.They are,as reported by Rebecca Hall in her book, 'Voiceless Victims'.

Meat industries are always keen to stun as many animals as possible in the least possible time and so commercial interests have often been the overriding factor

I would like to conclude, that an up-to-date assessment of the Islamic (or religious) method of slaughter shows, beyond doubt, that the Divine method is the only humane method which is free from side-effects and secondary effects on the animal and the consumer and which matches almost all the criteria for the best method of slaughter and is to be recommended.

We obviously would recommend more research and study to be done on the religious methods of slaughter (e.g. the effect of cutting the trachea and oesophagus on the animal during slaughter). We also need research into the effect of restraining. Transporting and using chemicals and drugs on the animals as far as the meat quality and health are concerned. Also, we need to study the psychological effect of the present methods on the slaughter-man himself.

(Appendix:

FATWA

RECENT INFORMATIONS: The European Council for Ifta and Research has given this Fatwa in his meeting in Koln/Germany on, 19—22 May 1999:

"It is not allowed to eat all the stunned chicken as many of it die from the effect of STUNNING"

"It is not allowed to eat the meat of cow if it was stunned as some of it die from the stunning before Dhabh/Slaughtering" The slaughtering of sheeps in some countries is not different from the Islamic method of slaughter."

Pitching's method of stunning will be outlawed in UK/Europe by January/2001 (because of BSE risk)

It is believed that the cows, the sheep's and the chicken have been fed for long times meat/offal/by products from the animals and blood which are all not allowed in Islam;

It is called: "LAJIM AL -JALLALAH", when any of these VEGETFJRIAN animals are fed unnatural diet or animal protein. Or dirt (all considered IZRA);

If this occurs, according to Fuqaha: you kill, all these animals you do not drink their milk or eat their meat and eggs. Alternatively you starve them near to death (3 to 40 days) then you feed them their natural vegetarian diet

—There is a big question mark (?) on all meat from the cow due to BSE or Mad cow disease.
There is also a question mark (?) on all chicken and sheep's when they are fed: animal protein or the meat of other animals.

—There is a big danger in all the meat imported from Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, Brazil etc., to Muslim countries.

It is believed that they are not slaughtered in the proper Islamic HALAL way and without stunning.

Also it is believed that they have been fed with unnatural diet (animal protein). –There is a growing campaign in the West against feeding these animals which we eat: Genetically modified food which could Harmful and with health hazards.

The Muslims in Britain are joining with these non-Muslim organizations and Christians in: Genetic Engineering Alliance, the big Umbrella organization;

Muslims are advised to join them.

-Some active bodies like; Friends of the Earth, Green peace, the Soil Association etc. They do have a lot of useful studies and reports, which can be very helpful to the Muslims. (See also many of their Websites).

—On health grounds, Muslims should oppose hormones and anti­biotics to be given to the animals we eat.

We need badly: Muslim scientists in the field of animal slaughter and to investigate more: our HALAL method, stunning etc.

—We need badly to "grow" our own animals" in our own farms in the natural way or organic.

—Pesticides/insecticides and all chemicals should be avoided, as they have been proved harmful to health.

—Most Muslim countries could be on the way like the west for BSE and other diseases as they use STUNNING and do feed their animal's unnatural diet or animal meat/protein.

—A big international Muslim body to investigate and explore all, these dangers to our Muslim Ummah and to stop all these harmful unnatural haram practices.

A massive publicity campaign is urgently needed. —It is allowed in Britain and in many European countries to slaughter the animals without stunning (for Muslims and Jews) there are haram ingredients in many food in the supermarkets.

—Many fruits/vegetables are not safe due to pesticides and insecticides, additives, coloring etc.

("The wiser individuals are those who know whom to consult and how to get the most benefit from their opinions: such people are a pleasure to work with. Insensitive, thoughtless individuals, so complacent about their own knowledge or competence in an affair that they will intimidate others into accepting their opinions, are always unbearable to those who must work with them.")

Dr.A.Majid Katme(MBBCh,DPM)
Chairman, Islamic Medical Association
31 North Circular Road,
Palmers Green,
London N13 5EG, UK
Tel : 0044 208 345 6220/Mobile: 0044 7944 240 622

E-mail Address: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

R E F E R E N CE S

Islamic Religious Sources and General References;

THE holy Book AL QUR'AN.

Sahih Muslirn(the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad~.peace upon him),.

The concordance of words of the Our'an

Al—Dhabh"sla~in~ animals for food,the Islamic way" by Dr G.M. Khan.

The Science of the animals ,by Aljahez.

The Bible(Good News).

InstruCtions & P're-requisites of Slaughter according to Shariya of Islam (Muslim world League ,Secretaria General,tiecca Almukarramah).

The Report of the Ministry of Awgaf about Slaying the animals for food. (United Arab Emirates).

WHO Regional office for the Eastern Mediterranean Jan/1986:Joint meeting of the League of Muslim world(LMW) and the World Health organisation (WHO) on Islamic rules governing foods of animal origin.

Humane killing and Slaughterhouse Techniques (UFAW Symposium 1971).

Farm animal welfare council :Report on the welfare of Poultry at the ti­me of slaughter.Jan/1982.

Farm animal welfare council zReport on the welfare of Livestock(Red Meat animals) at the time of slauqhter.1984.

Farm animal welfare council:Report on the welfare of Livestock when slaughtered by Religious methods.July/1985.

The Guardian 3rd April/ 985

The Times 3rd Sept 1984.

Impact magazine :23 Aug/85 and 26th Sept/85.

SCIENTIFIC STUDIES AND PAPERS:

1—Sheep Slaughtering procedures: i; Survey of Abattoir practice; (Gregory,Wotton), Br Vet J/1984.

2—Sheep Slaughtering procedures: ii; Time to loss of Brain Responsiveness after exsanguinations or cardiac arrest. [Gregory,Wotton (Brit Vet J /1984)]

3—Sheep Slaughtering procedures: iii; Head to back electrical stunning. (Gregory, Wotton. Brit Vet J/1984)

4—Sheep Slaughtering procedures: iv; Responsiveness of the pain following electrical stunning. (Gregory, Wotton; Brit Vet J/1985).

5-Developments in stunning and slaughter. (21st Meat industry Research conference; K.V.Gilbert)

6-Effects of different slaughter methods on bleeding sheep.(Blackmore, vet record 16/Oct/76)

7-Non-penetrative percussion stunning of sheep & calves; (Blackmore, Vet record,20 Oct/79).

8—Stunning and slaughter of sheep & calves in Newzealand,. (Blackmore & Peterson ,NZ Vet,.J. 29. 99—102).

9—Electroencephalographic studies of the efficacy of electrical stunning of sheep & calves. (Blackmore & Newhook, 26th European meeting of Meat Reserch workers .Vol. 1/1980).

10-The influence of slaughter method on chemistry and property of Lamb meat (Phd thesis by Dr A.S.Biala).

11-Effect of electrical stunning method and cardiac arrest on bleeding efficiency, residual blood,& blood splash in lambs.(Kirton, Frazerhurst, Woods & Chrystal; Meat science,1980—81).

12-Further observations on the slaughter of Poultry. (Heath, Watt, Waite, & Meakins). Brit,Vet J/83.

13-Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food & its influence on blood supply to the brain & on the normal functioning of the nervous system. (I.M.Levinger: Animal Regulation studies 2,1979).

14—Muslim attitudes to the slaughter of food animals. (M.Abdussalam, Animal Regulation studies, 3.1980—1981).

15-Muslim slaughter is it a ritual method': (Helmy, Al-Sana'e, Alnisuf & Al—Sultan: lst International conference on Islamic medicine ,Kuwait/1981).

16-Blood flow in the Carotid & Vertebral arteries of the sheep and calf; (Baldwin, Bell: J.Physiol/1963).

17-The effect on Blood pressure in the sheep & calf of clamping some of the arteries contributing to the Cephalic circulation. (Baldwin, Bell: PhysIol/1963).

18-Proceedings of Seminar Res. Inst of Animal Prod (Netherlands/82),

19-Electroencephalographic studies of stunning & slaughter of sheep and calves: part i: the onset of permanent insensibility in sheep during slaughter. (Newhock, Blackmore; Meat Sci, 1982).

20-Electroencephalographic studies of stunning & slaughter of sheep and calves. part ii: the onset of permanent insensibility in calves during slaughter. (Newhook,Blackmore; Meat Sci 1982).

21-Some aspects of Captive Bolt Stunning in Ruminants. (Lampooy, Logtesting, Sybesma; Proceeding Res. Inst. of Animal Prod/82,Netherlands

22-Final conclusions: Proceeding of seminar; Res. Inst. of Anim,Prod/82 Netetherland

23-Electroanaesthesia of calves & sheeps (Lambooy; Proceeding Res, Inst of animal Prod/82 ,Netherlands).

24-Discussion: (Proceeding Res Inst of Animal Prod/82 Netherlands)

25—The assessment of insensibility in sheep, calves & Pigs during slaughter: (Blackmore, Nèwhook: Proc, of Sem, Resp, lnst, of Ani,Prod/82,Netherlsands)

26—Studies on the central nervous system: Visually evoked cortical responses in sheep (Gregory, Wotton; Research in Vet Science/1983).

27—Practical problems associated with the slaughter of Stock: (Blackmore; Proc of a Seminar at Res. Inst of animal prod/82 Netherlands).

28—Problems with Kosher slaughter:(Temple Grandin; lnt. J. Stu. ani. prod/1980) -

29—Mechanical, Electrical & Anesthetic stunning methods for Livestock: (Temple Grandin:Int.J.Stu.ani.Prod/1980)

30—The assessment of unconsciousness: General principles & practical aspects (Lopes da Silva: Proceedings of a seminar held at the research institute of animal production, Netherlands/1982),

31—A survey of Current methods of Stunning of Farm Animals in EEC countries (G..V Mickwitz: Proceeding research. Inst. of anim.prod.Netherlands/1982).

32-On the Humanity methods of Slaughter: Dr.L.Hill. (The Lancet/192 3.)

33—Stress; What is it & how can it be quantified? (T.H.Friend:Int.J.Stud.Anim..Problems/1980).

34—Relationships between Time of Stunning & Time of Throat cutting and their effect on blood pressure & blood splash in lambs. (Kirton, Bishop, Mullord: Meat Sci/1978) -

 

 

 

Chine: Meat balls-up boulettes halal 100% pur pork

boulettes viande chine

Meat balls-up angers Muslims

Kelly Ip

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

The Muslim community was in shock yesterday following a report that beef balls being sold in some markets and shops actually contained pork.

The report by Cable TV that no cattle DNA was found in beef balls it bought prompted a religious group to call on all Muslims to eat only Halal food or at restaurants with Halal certification.

Secretary for Food and Health Ko Wing-man pledged his bureau will work with Customs to crack down on the irregularities.

Ko said the vendors could be breaching the Trade Descriptions Ordinance if the beef balls only contained pork.

"We are not in charge of all the imported food but the Centre for Food Safety carries out spot checks on up to 60,000 food samples, which is a decent ratio when compared to other places," Ko said.

However, the report has raised concerns among the Muslim community which is prohibited from eating pork and which can only consume Halal, or permissible, food, that has been treated in a specific way.

The Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community Fund of Hong Kong said Muslims in Hong Kong should go to restaurants which have been issued with Halal Certificates and whose food products have been checked and verified.

Sringatin, 32, chairwoman of the Indonesian Migrant Workers' Union who has worked in Hong Kong for 10 years, said it is unacceptable that the meat balls were not labeled properly.

"Out of respect for the Muslim community and those who cannot eat pork, the manufacturers should list the ingr

edients on the packaging," she told The Standard.

"The government also needs to monitor the market because it is about trust and respect to others.

"Domestic workers don't have any choice as the government only asks the employers to give us food, which may not be suitable."

The spokesman for the Centre for Food Safety said it is following up the report and checking with several retailers including Chiu Yuen Chiu Chow Noodle at Wan Chai, Kai Bo Food Supermarket at Tin Shui Wai and a wet market stall which purchased beef meat balls from Four Seas Global Food.

He said they had obtained some samples from two of the retailers but the third was not selling the product.

According to the Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance, any person selling food or drug which is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser shall be guilty of an offense for which the maximum penalty is a fine of HK$10,000 and three months' imprisonment.

In another development, beef merchants yesterday demanded that the government open the live cattle market to more competition to help bring down beef prices.

Ko said the bureau has started to discuss opening the market with the mainland authority but stressed that greater competition may not guarantee lower prices.

Source : thestandard.com.hk

Moussaoui

Poland: Banning ritual slaughter was a cardinal mistake with huge consequences

poulet pologne

For some, it was a barbaric way to treat animals. For others, it was great business.

Until January, slaughterhouses across Poland — a deeply Catholic nation — were the unlikely venues for the Islamic and Jewish slaughter of animals, which in both religions involves a swift cut to the throat of a conscious animal and death by bleeding.

Millions of euros were being made exporting the halal and kosher meat to countries like Egypt, Iran and Israel, as well as to Muslim and Jewish markets inside Europe.

In a victory for a growing animal rights movement, activists succeeded in getting a ban on such religious slaughter. But with economic decline deepening and exports seen as a possible salvation, the government faces pressure to get the practice reinstated legally — and is scrambling to do so.

Though Poland's own cuisine is heavy in pork, a meat banned by Jewish and Islamic laws, the country has cut out this niche business for itself in one example of the economic savvy Poland has shown since joining the European Union in 2004. Kosher and halal meat exports have grown between 20 and 30 percent per year in recent years as the largely agricultural country has capitalized on its low labor costs and a reputation for healthy farm animals.

"God gave us good food, good soil and good farm animals, and he gave the Muslim countries what they have under the surface — black gold," said Mufti Tomasz Miskiewicz, the top Muslim leader in Poland. "There are nations with big populations — like Egypt, the Arab countries, Indonesia — that need this food and don't have enough cattle to produce enough meat themselves."

The business has been overseen and encouraged by Poland's Jewish and Muslim communities, minorities that are very small but with a presence going back many centuries. Polish Jews once made up the world's largest Jewish population; though nearly wiped out in the Holocaust, the community is growing. Tatars, a Muslim people, also settled here centuries ago, and have been joined recently by Arab diplomats, businessmen and students.

The kosher and halal business had boomed until January, when the ban took effect following a ruling by the Constitutional Tribunal. Though the actual slaughter was carried out by specially trained Muslim and Jewish officials, the industry also created thousands of supporting jobs for others.

Animal rights activists argue that killing animals without stunning them first causes unnecessary suffering to the animals. Jewish and Muslim leaders strongly disagree, and insist that their method is actually more humane, in part became it causes the animals to lose consciousness very fast. They argue that standard industrial slaughter involves pre-stunning that is sometimes not effective, leading to even greater suffering.

Poland's chief rabbi, Michael Schudrich, says Jewish tradition has always been concerned with the welfare of animals, noting, for instance, that it bans hunting and any senseless suffering.

"For close to 3,000 years, Jewish slaughter practices have been followed that minimize pain to the animal," Schudrich said.

Polish meat industry officials are hesitant to take sides on which slaughter method causes more suffering, with their focus firmly on economics.

The pro-market government of Prime Minister Donald Tusk is also eager to get the business going again and has recently drafted a law that would reinstate religious slaughter while also adding some new protections for animals.

The law's fate now rests with parliament, which is due to debate and vote on it in the coming weeks. It is expected to pass since the government enjoys majority support in the assembly, but probably not without some heated debate. Lawmakers are under pressure from all sides, including from an animal rights movement that has grown stronger as the ex-communist country grows increasingly Westernized.

In the meantime, industry leaders warn that millions of euros and thousands of jobs could be lost if Poland doesn't re-legalize religious slaughter soon.

"Banning ritual slaughter was a cardinal mistake with huge consequences," said Witold Choinski, the head of Polskie Mieso, or Polish Meat, an organization that represents the interests of meat producers.

Choinski said there are no official figures on the financial losses so far, but the number is high: the industry is worth about 500 million euros ($650 million) per year to the Polish economy and it has been largely frozen for nearly half a year. About 100,000 tons of kosher or halal beef and 100,000 tons of poultry were exported annually before the ban — making up between 20 and 30 percent of Poland's beef exports and about 10 percent of poultry exports, Choinski said.

He says there is currently no production at all of the religiously slaughtered meat, though Miskiewicz and others say there is some small-scale production taking place in a legal gray zone.

Many of the Polish meat facilities which handle kosher and halal meat — usually in addition to traditional slaughter — have had to limit their overall production because of the ban, while major contracts with traders from the Middle East have been suspended, Choinski said.

Poland had been close to sealing major long-term contracts with Saudi Arabia, but these were abandoned because of the unclear legal situation. Meanwhile, many Polish companies that produce halal and kosher meat are on the verge of bankruptcy, and up to 6,000 workers could lose their jobs, he said.

"Poland can't afford this. Most meat production facilities are in small places without other places for people to work and this is dooming the economic prospects of people," he said. "But I think there will be a resolution because no government can allow 6,000 people to get laid off during an economic crisis."

For now, business is being picked up by producers in nearby countries, including Latvia, Hungary and the Czech Republic, Miskiewicz said.

Bosnia is also working hard to position itself as an exporter of halal products. The country opened its first halal fair Wednesday in Sarajevo, welcoming representatives of the Islamic world to take a look at Bosnian products. Erdal Trhulj, Bosnia's regional industry minister, said the halal industry is growing worldwide, and that his country "aims to become a hub for halal industry in this part of Europe."

The debate surrounding the issue has lacked any overt anti-Jewish or anti-Islamic tones, though religious rights are also pressing concern for the minorities and a government that wants to maintain good ties with them.

Miskiewicz says there is a degree of unfairness in banning Jewish and Islamic slaughter when so many Polish Catholics follow a similar practice themselves at Christmas, when carp are slaughtered in homes across the nation without any pre-stunning.

Source : Yahoo news

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kebab Ryad

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Source alarabiya.net

MP Rushanara Ali calls for action over Halal meat quality

mp rusharna ALi

The government must take immediate steps to ensure Halal meat is not contaminated, Bethnal Green and Bow MP Rushanara Ali has urged.

Ms Ali wrote to the minister of state for agriculture and food David Heath after pork DNA was found in Halal meat earlier this year.

“My constituents are rightly concerned about the standards of meat being served to their children and I will continue to hold the government to account on this issue, which is of critical importance to so many of British Muslims”, she said.

Tower Hamlets Council has previously insisted it had investigated the meat served in its schools to ensure it is free from horse meat or pork


Source : eastlondonadvertiser

South Africa: Halal Tourism Conference

halal tourism south Africa

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drapo arabie-saoudite

H1N1 Discovered in Marine Mammals

elephant sea

Scientists at the University of California, Davis, detected the H1N1 (2009) virus in free-ranging northern elephant seals off the central California coast a year after the human pandemic began, according to a study published today, May 15, in the journalPLOS ONE. It is the first report of that flu strain in any marine mammal.

"We thought we might find influenza viruses, which have been found before in marine mammals, but we did not expect to find pandemic H1N1," said lead author Tracey Goldstein, an associate professor with the UC Davis One Health Institute and Wildlife Health Center. "This shows influenza viruses can move among species."

UC Davis researchers have been studying flu viruses in wild birds and mammals since 2007 as part of the Centers of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance program funded by National Institutes of Health. The goal of this research is to understand how viruses emerge and move among animals and people.

Between 2009 and 2011, the team of scientists tested nasal swabs from more than 900 marine mammals from 10 different species off the Pacific Coast from Alaska to California. They detected H1N1 infection in two northern elephant seals and antibodies to the virus in an additional 28 elephant seals, indicating more widespread exposure.

Neither infected seal appeared to be ill, indicating marine mammals may be infected without showing clinical signs of illness.

The findings are particularly pertinent to people who handle marine mammals, such as veterinarians and animal rescue and rehabilitation workers, Goldstein said. They are also a reminder of the importance of wearing personal protective gear when working around marine mammals, both to prevent workers' exposure to diseases, as well as to prevent the transmission of human diseases to animals.

H1N1 originated in pigs. It emerged in humans in 2009, spreading worldwide as a pandemic. The World Health Organization now considers the H1N1 strain from 2009 to be under control, taking on the behavior of a seasonal virus.

"H1N1 was circulating in humans in 2009," said Goldstein. "The seals on land in early 2010 tested negative before they went to sea, but when they returned from sea in spring 2010, they tested positive. So the question is where did it come from?"

When elephant seals are at sea, they spend most of their time foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean off the continental shelf, which makes direct contact with humans unlikely, the report said.

The seals had been satellite tagged and tracked, so the researchers knew exactly where they had been and when they arrived on the coast. The first seal traveled from California on Feb. 11 to southeast Alaska to forage off the continental shelf, returning to Point Piedras Blancas near San Simeon, Calif., on April 24. The second seal left Ano Nuevo State Reserve in San Mateo County, Calif., on Feb. 8, traveling to the northeast Pacific and returning on May 5. Infections in both seals were detected within days of their return to land. The report said exposure likely occurred in the seals before they reached land, either while at sea or upon entering the near-shore environment.

The research, led by scientists Goldstein and Walter Boyce at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine's One Health Institute, was conducted with collaborators Nacho Mena and Adolfo Garcia-Sastre at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, who sequenced the virus isolates and characterized their phenotypic properties.

"The study of influenza virus infections in unusual hosts, such as elephant seals, is likely to provide us with clues to understand the ability of influenza virus to jump from one host to another and initiate pandemics," said Garcia-Sastre, professor of microbiology and director of the Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine.

 

Source:scientificcomputing

Horsemeat fraud blamed on big organisation: Freeza Meats

All roads do not lead to Ireland as far as the horsemeat scandal is concerned, ex-commercial director of Freeza Meats James Fairbairn told an EFRA Committee yesterday.

According to the recently retired director, the scandal cost Freeza Meats a £2.5m contract and led to 31 job losses. He told select Committee member Mary Glindon MP that the horsemeat scandal was a fraud perpetrated by a big organisation – “a big one,” he said. 

This is something the industry will not get over for a long time, he forecast, and said the contamination was directed “selectively” between burger plants and cooking plants, “in my opinion”, he added. 

Glindon, Labour MP for North Tyneside, asked how the country would move past the scandal, to which Fairbairn said controls in contamination would be put in place in boning and butchery halls. “Every consignment of beef taken in the future will have species tests,” he said. 

Origin of meat

Meanwhile, Neil Parish MP questioned how the industry would identify which country meat came from and how traceability would work through the Republic of Ireland and the UK. “I don’t know, short of putting armed guards on these installations,” Fairbairn joked. But he added that if someone wanted to commit fraud, then it would happen.   

Source:  meatinfo.co.uk

On the subject of committing fraud and how the scandal was uncovered, Barry Gardiner MP asked for Fairbrain’s opinion on why the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) tested for horse DNA. He drew on the Committee’s hearing with the FSAI and quoted FSAI chief executive Alan Reilly as saying the discovery was akin to “winning the Lotto”. 

“Why do you think the FSAI used those tests?” he said and asked Fairbairn why they tested for horse. “I think there was a whistle-blower involved,” Fairbairn replied. “I’m talking my opinion, and it had to be a whistle-blower. They headed straight for Silvercrest and equalised that by going to Liffey Meats. Why didn’t they test for seagulls?” 

Contamination

Gardiner further asked if committing fraud in the meat industry would involve labelling, mislabelling and double book-keeping. “What are the tools of the trade?” he prompted. 

“You will not get a full box of equine,” Fairbairn replied slowly. He said boxes would be half-and-half, with low visual lean (VL) amounts of bovine and high VL equine, “which would up the average VL in the box”, he added. 

All roads lead to Ireland?

On the question of how and where the contamination took place, posed by Margaret Ritchie MP, Fairbairn said he couldn’t conceive that such a thing had happened in the British Isles and concluded that, in his opinion, the fraud was of European origin. 

Committee chair Anne McIntosh wanted more from Fairbairn on the origin of the fraud, asking if it was perpetrated by a large organisation somewhere, and highlighted that things people had heard or read in the press said all roads led to Ireland. “No, not at all,” defended Fairbairn. “The volumes required to make it worthwhile wouldn’t be in Ireland,” he said, adding that it was high-risk, low-return. 

However, McIntosh questioned how low the return was, since the meat industry had lost desinewed meat, which had driven up the price of forequarter meat – the product Freeza Meats deals with most. “My reading of your enquiry, I honestly can’t believe that anyone in Ireland would do that,” he said.steak haché

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