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Research Paper


Summary report


Experiments for the objecti?cation of pain and consciousness during conventional (captive bolt stunning) and religiously mandated (ritual cutting) slaughter procedures for sheep and calves.


By W. Schulze, H. Schultze-Petzold, A.S. Hazem, and R. Gross


The Animal Welfare Act of 24 July 1972 (TierSchG) assumes the basic concept of an
ethically orientated animal welfare legislation. It further stipulates that the standards for
evaluating the obligation to protect animals should not so much be the result of human
sensitivities and emotional, but to be increasingly replaced by exact and representative
scienti?c knowledge of standards and requirements speci?c to animal species and
correspondent to their behaviour (Ertl. 1972). The Act thus conforms to the changing
attitude of man to the life circumstances and legitimate welfare entitlements of animals, a
development which can also be noticed internationally.

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The rules for animal welfare founded on scienti?c standards of evaluation mean for many
of the regulated welfare concerns, e.g. the keeping and transportation of animals, a
necessity to clarify individual scienti?c and subject-speci?c issues. This clari?cation is a
precondition for a continued reform of animal welfare.
This applies in particular to the third section of the TierSchG, which deals with the killing of
animals. The provisions of this section are further directly connected to the law on
slaughter, which thus assumes the legal position of a special legislative part of the Animal
Welfare Act. This fundamental integration of the law on slaughter within the Animal Welfare
Act has been explicitly con?rmed by a vote of the Council of Federal States dated 25
October 1963. At that time the Council of Federal States refused to authorise the draft of a
Third Directive on the Modi?cation of the Directive on the slaughter of animals by the
Federal secretary of state for Nutrition, Agriculture and Forestry (BML) giving the following
reasons:
The regulations of the Law on slaughter (Act and directions on implementation on the
slaughter of animals dated 21 April 1933) are to be seen in their totality as part of the topic
Animal Welfare, which is to be seen as an independent and complete legal matter in the
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 1meaning of the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court dated 11 May 1955 (BverfGE
4, 128-184). The Law on slaughter is therefore an integrated part of the Animal Welfare Act
and included in the general reform of the Animal Welfare Act demanded by parliament and
the public.
According to article 4, para. 1 TierSchG a vertebrate must only be killed after being
stunned or otherwise, where reasonable under the given circumstances, without af?icting
pain. Where the killing of a vertebrate is permitted without stunning, e.g. due to other
legislation, the killing must only be carried out with no more than the inevitable pain. This
binding general provision of the TierSchG must equally be the basis of the reformed Law
on slaughter.
With regard to the slaughter of hot-blooded vertebrates the task of a scienti?c clari?cation
of the processes during stunning and killing becomes paramount here. In other words: a
full-scope scienti?c investigation of existing ideas of the start, course and extent of the
reduction of perceptiveness and the sensitivity to pain including its expiration. This means:
clarity about the relation between stunning and killing. The term consciousness should be
avoided.
From an animal welfare rights perspective stunning here means a measure which moves
the animal to be slaughtered as quickly as possible and without fear into a condition of
complete loss of sensitivity and perception; the time factor does play an important role
here. This is followed by the killing, normally by way of bloodletting, which transforms the
animal to be slaughtered into a carcass.
Investigations of the effectiveness of stunning an animal to be slaughtered must in todays
understanding be based on the possibility of measuring pain reactions. There are a
number of publications on the various methods of stunning animals for slaughter.
However, their conclusions are so far predominantly based on subjective methods of
evaluation and contain little scienti?c evidence.
Recently, critical essays on the effectiveness of current methods of stunning animals for
slaughter are on the increase (Cantieni, 1977; Scheper, 1977). In the Netherlands a
committee (De Studiecommissie Bedwelming Slachtdieren) was established for the same
reason in 1975, and its most important task is to advice the government on reliable
methods of stunning animals for slaughter with regard to animal welfare.
For ruminants the captive bolt stunning device is the usual stunning device. In recent
decades it has been accepted for use all over the world. Whereas this device has been
recognised legally for stunning animals for slaughter nationally and internationally only
very few experimental works on this method have been published to date. A particular
cause for a careful evaluation is not at least the information by Arlt (1971) that 3 of 9
patients (suicide attempt) remained conscious for longer periods of time in spite of severe
penetrating brain injuries after a bolt shot in the frontal and temporal regions.
For animals, here speci?cally with regard to the slaughterhouse situation, a loss of
sensitivity and perception (stunning) can only be assumed when the animal lies completely
without movement after the respective measure and does not show any reaction to given
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 2pain stimuli. On the other hand, we know from daily experience that captive bolt stunning,
in its various applications, can lead to different reactions. A knowledge and observation of
the necessary strength of the physical force applied in order to have the required
mechanical effect on the brain seems equally important here as the point of application
and direction of application of the bolt. There are hardly any experiments available for the
purpose of ensuring a de?nite stunning of the animal to be slaughtered.
The preparatory considerations for the restructuring of the slaughter legislation for cows,
calves and sheep also had to include the slaughter of these animals in accordance with
religiously mandated regulations without prior stunning (so-called ritual slaughter). Since
long, factual, legal, and ethical issues confront each other inextricably in this matter. The
opposition to a stunning-free slaughter has a long history. For example, the executive
committee of the Federation of Animal Welfare Associations petitioned the Imperial
German Parliament already in 1895 to proscribe the stunning-free slaughter. In 1910, 612
German slaughterhouse veterinarians and 41 German veterinary associations described
stunning-free slaughter as cruelty to animals in a declaration to the Imperial German
Parliament and demanded a legal prohibition.
Even before, in 1901, 441 out of 463 experts described the stunning-free slaughter as
contrary to animal welfare in a questionnaire aimed at all veterinarians as well as
university lecturers at veterinary colleges and professors of physiology in the then German
Empire (Spitaler, A., 1965). Representatives of animal welfare present the same opinion
today not only nationally, but also internationally. For example, the representatives of the
World Animal Welfare Association and the International Society for Animal Welfare
participating as observers in the deliberations of the Animal Protection Committee of the
Council of Europe in Strasbourg for the creation of a European Agreement on Animal
Welfare during Slaughter stated the following, amongst other things, about their strict
opposition of slaughter of ruminants in accordance with religious regulations (ritual
cutting): Ritual slaughter as such means considerable pain for the animals.
Further: The connection between the central and the peripheral nervous systems is not
severed by the ritual cut; in addition the vertebral artery remains intact, which results in
bovine animals in the brain continuing to a degree to be supplied with blood. And: As brain
impulses (electroencephalogram) and the capability of coordinated movement can still be
observed some time after the ritual cut, it must be assumed that the sensation of pain also
continues for some time. These considerations were presented by the observers
mentioned as the result of a discussion with scienti?c experts in veterinary medicine at the
university Munich in November 1996 (Council of Europe, Committee of Experts on the
Protection of Animals, 1976).
Representations of this kind have long been challenged by equally thorough studies and
observations of other established experts. For example, Bongart (1927) pointed out on the
basis of very extensive studies on the ritual slaughter of calves carried out with his
colleagues Hock, Muchlinsky and Schellner, that where ritual slaughter has been carried
out properly on animals, the resistance movements observed could no longer be
interpreted as signs of consciousness and sensation of pain. He reaches the conclusion
with regard to calves that no cruelty to animals of whatever kind can be found in the
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 3application of the ritual slaughter method. As an example of a similar view of more recent
years the representations of Spoerri (1964) on the topic Animal welfare and ritual slaughter
can be cited. He reached the conviction on the basis of observations on some 50 ritually
slaughtered animals, as well as related experiments on rabbits, sheep, goat, and cows
under laboratory conditions, that the ritual slaughter of animals did not cause any or at
least no more pain than killing after captive bolt, electric or CO2 stunning. The studies of
Levinger (1976) are of a similar nature.
Schultze-Petzold (1973) characterises the scienti?c debate of these issues during a lecture
on the imminent creation of a European Agreement on the Welfare of Animals in the
Committee Animal Protection of the Council of Europe as follows: Those familiar with the
national and international literature on this problem must note that the problem of causing
and sensing pain and the elimination of consciousness and its criteria already existed
before the turn of the century with regard to the slaughter methods at the centre of the
evidence and counter-evidence of the cruelty of animals assumed in this case with the
exception of the issue of laying down the animal to be slaughtered, which today seems
resolved by using the hydraulic tilting equipment. All these considerations and attempted
experiments last carried out comprehensively by veterinary medicine some 40 years ago
are only more or less hypothetical in their conclusions.
For example they are not or only insuf?ciently able to make any statements on the kind
and intensity of the brain function linked to consciousness. This is, of course, mostly due to
the inadequacy of methodological possibilities at the time. Practically we are today, when
tackling the reform of the Law on slaughter, still faced with a situation that with regard to
the beginning and extent of the loss of perception and sensitivity and the stimulation of
sensing pain and its discontinuation, whether using captive bolt stunning or ritual
slaughter, there is no scienti?cally secure evidence available. The precondition of such
generally valid evidence is comparative studies aiming at the objecti?cation and
measurability of pain and consciousness processes. This is furthermore a highly topical
issue in general medicine, as it comes close to the question of where life ends and death
begins. One need only refer to the discussion on the timing of the right to remove organs
for human transplantation.
The research of human medicine into the physiology of the senses has in this respect
turned intensively to modern methodological possibilities of discovery and has since
developed these into a useful objecti?cation of these questions. Here the
electroencephalogram (EEG) most certainly plays a key role.
This poses the question for the Federal ministry of nutrition, agriculture and forestry (BML)
when starting work on the reform of the Law of slaughter: Should it not be possible, after
an adjustment for the various models of animals for slaughter, to ?nd ways through this
kind of method to reach within a reasonable time a scienti?cally sound and predominantly
objective statement on the processes relevant for animal welfare during conventional as
well as ritual slaughter of hot-blooded animals?
In 1971 and 1973 the BML discussed this theoretical approach for a scienti?c clari?cation
of the issues at stake during talks with representatives of the Rabbinical Conference and
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 4the Central Council of Jews in Germany, and the spiritual management of Muslim refugees
in the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively. At the same time the religiously
mandated factors applying to the ritual slaughter were clari?ed with these religious
communities. It was made clear that the respective religiously mandated provisions of both
religions continue to be binding for their members. As this conclusion has until recently
been repeatedly questioned with regard to the members of the Islamic faith in the Federal
Republic of Germany, a statement on the topic by the Turkish Government representative
in the Committee Animal Protection of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, during the
creation of the above-mentioned European Agreement on Animal Welfare during slaughter
is partly quoted here: Turkey investigated the possibility of the electric stunning of animals
for slaughter. It must be noted that this procedure violates the expectations of the Turkish
people as well as the rules of the Muslim faith (Council of Europe, Committee of Experts
on the Protection of Animals, 1976).
During this preliminary work the BML asked experts of the various branches of learning
mentioned in a meeting in early 1974 to present their experiences and ideas. Both the
general discovery of the physiology of the senses relevant to this matter as well as all
potential methodological possibilities were discussed, not least with regard to their
adaptation to the models of animals for slaughter cow, calf, sheep and any necessary
initial experiments. The discussion was guided by the following questions:
1. What do we know and what can be measured using instruments?
2. What do we not yet know or do not know suf?ciently?
3. What can be made measurable using instruments?
This does not merely concern the ritual slaughter complex, but also the scienti?cally
proven de?nition of the term stunning during captive bolt stunning. It needs to be
established whether the captive bolt does with the respective animals to be slaughtered
de?nitely cause a Commotio cerebri which only leads to unconsciousness after shaking
the limbic system. Otherwise the captive bolt method would only cause a Contusio in these
animals to be slaughtered, which generally would only lead to a motor paralysis.
Aim of the expert consultation was mainly an answer to the question: Does the current
state of methodology permit the experimental study of the pertaining scienti?c questions in
principle?
The minutes of this expert meeting on 7-9 February 1974 at the BML contain the following
summary of results: The experts discussed the anatomical, physiological and clinical
issues in depth with regard to the current methodological possibilities. Special emphasis
was given to the species-speci?c variations and the comparability to analogous human
experiences. The experts mainly agree that, especially due to the different anatomical
starting conditions for the animal species under consideration, a principal comparability
must not be assumed from the outset. This also applies to the respective age categories
(e.g. calf/cow). Relevant research is being advocated. When investigating the
methodological possibilities, the key candidates are: EEG, blood pressure and brain
pressure measurements, angiography, re?ex studies, and functional investigations of the
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 5adrenocortis. During initial experiments measurements should be as extensive as
possible, in order to reveal unidenti?able correlations. During questioning the experts
appeared to place special emphasis on the factor time/pain, as for a future legislative
regulation both terms are of equal importance. Initially investigations using EEG together
with electrocardiagram (ECG) and blood pressure and re?ex measurements appear
promising, followed by checking the adrenocortial function (adrenalin corticosteroid
discharge) with horizontal catheter (BML AZ. 321 2971.4 60/73).
Following the decision of the expert group the BML issued on 1st July 1974 a research
brief on the topic Objecti?cation of pain and consciousness in the context of conventional
and ritual slaughter of ruminants (initially sheep and calves) to Prof Dr W Schulze, director
of the Clinic for small clawed animals and forensic medicine and mobile clinic of the
veterinary university of Hanover. Within the research work of that clinic religious,
physiological, and technical issues of ritual slaughter had been dealt with in a
comprehensive study since the time of Kunkel (1962).
The research brief issued by the BML demanded a gradual development of the studies.
The mastery of electrode technology and electrode implantation for the animal species
concerned, the mastery of external electricity by building a Faraday cage for the
experiments, and the preliminary experiments on rabbits must be mentioned as the ?rst
signi?cant steps of the study. The individual work approaches required for this have since
been published (Weber, 1975; Freesemann, 1976, and Gross, 1976).
Early June 1977 the Clinic for small clawed animals and forensic medicine and mobile
clinic of the veterinary university of Hanover published a short report on this research brief
(Hazem, A.S., Gross, R., Schulze, W., 1977).
These documents reveal the following: The investigations carried out aimed at providing
objective data for the evaluation of ritual slaughter from an animal welfare legislation point
of view. As part of the research project the effectiveness of captive bolt stunning was ?rst
analysed using EEG. Comparable data about the ritual slaughter were then gained using
the same method of deduction and evaluation. The ritual cut experiments were carried out
on 17 sheep of the breed black headed meat sheep and 15 calves of various breeds. To
further investigate the occurrence of low frequency potentials in sheep stunned by captive
bolt followed by a bloodletting cut, six sheep were stunned in a second phase of the
experiment by captive bolt and then bled at various intervals.
The approach of these studies can be summarised as follows:
Experiments for measuring the heart frequency and brain activity during slaughter
conditions were carried out on 23 sheep and 15 calves. After implanting permanent
electrodes into the Os frontale the cerebral cortex impulses were measured for 17 sheep
and 10 calves during ritual slaughter and for 6 sheep and 5 calves during captive bolt
application with subsequent bloodletting. Some sheep were additionally subjected to
thermal pain stimuli after the ritual cut.


The investigations had the following results:


a) For slaughter by ritual cut:
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 61. After the bloodletting cut the EEG initially is the same as the EEG before the cut. There
is a high probability that the loss of reaction took place within 4 6 seconds for sheep and
within 10 seconds for calves.
2. The zero line in the EEG was recorded no later than after 13 seconds for 17 sheep and
no later than 23 seconds for 7 calves.
3. Thermal pain stimuli did not cause an increase in activity.
4. After the cut the heart frequency rose for calves within 40 seconds to 240 heart actions
per minute and for sheep within 40 seconds to 280 heart actions per minute.


b) For slaughter after captive bolt application:
1. After captive bolt stunning all animals displayed most severe general disturbances
(waves of 1-2 Hz) in the EEG, which almost with certainty eliminates a sense of pain.
2. The zero line in the EEG was reached for 4 calves after 28 seconds.
3. For two sheep the cerebral cortex activity only stopped in one half of the brain, whilst it
continued in the other in the region (up to 3.5 Hz) until the bloodletting cut.
4. The bloodletting cut resulted for all animals in a brain activity (e and d waves).
5. Thermal pain stimuli caused an increase in activity in one sheep.
6. The heart frequency rose directly after stunning to values above 300 actions per minute.
In summary the following conclusions are possible:
1. Slaughter after captive bolt stunning
A. Calves
After captive bolt stunning most severe general disturbances (waves of 1-2 Hz) occurred in
the EEG, which almost with certainty eliminates a sense of pain.
B. Sheep
Similar disturbances were also seen in sheep, but besides the somewhat higher frequency
there are still clearly superimposed waves. For one animal waves could be recorded after
pain stimuli until after the 200th second. Apparent cramps were registered for all sheep
with the exception of one animal.
2. Slaughter in the form of ritual cut
A. Calves
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 7After the bloodletting cut loss of reaction (loss of consciousness) occurred with high
probability within 10 seconds. A clear reaction to the cut could not be detected in any
animal. For 7 animals a zero EEG was recorded no later than after 23 seconds. Cramps
occurred in the animals regularly only after the brain currents had stopped.
B. Sheep
After the bloodletting cut loss of reaction (loss of consciousness) occurred after 10
seconds the latest. A clear reaction to the cut could not be detected in any animal. The
zero line was recorded no later than 14 seconds after the cut. Cramps only occurred after
the zero line had been detected and were much shorter than after captive bolt stunning.
The slaughter in the form of ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep
and calves according to the EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions.
During the experiments with captive bolt stunning no indications could be found for
proscribing this method for calves.
For sheep, however, there were in parts severe reactions both to the bloodletting cut and
the pain stimuli. A proof of the reliable effectiveness of captive bolt stunning could not be
provided using the methods applied.
These ?rst experiments carried out under clinical conditions and the insights for the
correlations of sensory physiology during stunning/slaughter of small ruminants initially
lead to the following factual and legal considerations for the preparation of legislation:
These experiments on sheep and calves carried out within a clinic show that during a ritual
slaughter, carried out according to the state of the art using hydraulically operated tilting
equipment and a ritual cut, pain and suffering to the extent as has since long been
generally associated in public with this kind of slaughter cannot be registered; the ritual
slaughter carried out under these experimental conditions complies with the requirements
of article 4 para. 1 TierSchG. The EEG zero line as a certain sign of the expiration of
cerebral cortex activity and according to todays state of knowledge also of consciousness
occurred generally within considerably less time than during the slaughter method after
captive bolt stunning.
Nobody can dispute that any slaughter of animals is an aesthetically loaded process. Thus
the wide-spread emotional resistance to kill an animal, which has not been stunned, by
cutting the throat, is understandable. Certainly the psychological argument for stunning the
animal to be slaughtered must be considered to some degree for the person carrying out
the slaughter or consuming the meat of these animals. Whether these initial ?ndings of
objective data on the processes of consciousness/pain made possible by the research
brief are suf?cient to somewhat alter existing opinions in the sense of the scienti?c
orientation of animal welfare as demanded by the TierSchG, remains to be seen. They
need to be followed as a high priority by further investigations in the continuation of the
scienti?c clari?cation of the issues of loss of pain and consciousness during slaughter of
this kind with and without stunning using the same experimental approach with a
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 8representative number of grown cows of various breeds. A new research brief is already
due to be issued to a different scienti?c institute.
The objective results presented for the captive bolt application in sheep show that here a
satisfactory prevention of pain could not be proven with clinical methods; rather it indicates
that the captive bolt device used is suspect. Therefore, research work in this ?eld is also
urgently required. This must be concerned with achieving an appropriate standardisation
of the charge size, to ensure the rapid loss of perception and sensation in animals of
different kinds and sizes. Similarly, the optimal dimension of the captive bolt must be found
and ?nally the best shooting position and direction during application of the captive bolt
device for the respective type of animal for slaughter. This must be based on the
experience that the results gained for one species cannot simply be transferred to another.
Further a subsequent regulation of the of?cial approval for stunning devices, the methods
of application after scienti?c review and a regular noti?cation of approved devices must
already be considered, as must a regular of?cial audit of approved devices used for
stunning. An appropriate training of the personnel concerned is also intended.
On the whole the insights into responses of the cerebral cortex to invasion and
interference with the organism of an animal for slaughter gained through the existing
research brief should also give rise to placing the research of sensory physiology in
animals increasingly in the centre of veterinary medicinal research. Why should the
measurable brain functions not also be given particular relevance during diagnostics!
Finally a few thoughts on the relevance of new scienti?c ?ndings for existing law:
New scienti?c ?ndings and the results presented are only a very ?rst contribution which
show that the ritual cut causes a very rapid loss of consciousness have an immediate
bearing only if the practice ritual slaughter comes under the heading of causing pain
(articles 1 and 4 para. 1 TierSchG).
They do not affect the requirement for stunning contained in article 4 para 1 TierSchG and
the Law on slaughter of 1933 with the exception of the religious slaughter/ritual cut
protected as part of the freedom of religious practice by the higher-order constitutional law.
New ?ndings of this kind may make the original considerations on this issue for including
the requirement of stunning into the above-mentioned laws appear irrelevant. As laws do,
however, remain in force irrespective of the causes which lead to their enactment, such
?ndings are to this extent without consequence.
It must, however, be considered separately to what degree and in which way such ?ndings
should be considered during the restructuring of the Law on slaughter.
The same applies with regard to the stunning requirement demanded in the directive of the
Council of European Communities dated 18 November 1974 on the stunning of animals
prior to slaughter (1974). Here too, new scienti?c ?ndings can only give rise to
deliberations, whether such an instruction is or maybe continues to be factually justi?ed,
but they cannot question the validity of this instruction. New ?ndings must, therefore, be
left out of the consideration to what extent the national Law of Slaughter meets the
demands of the above-mentioned directive. They can only be relevant when determining
Stunning v Slaughter Research Project - Hannover University 1978 9the special cases in article 3 of the above-mentioned EC directive, as the religiously
mandated ritual slaughter/ritual cut included as an exemption should be re-evaluated
against the background of legal reasoning.
Summary
The deliberations on the restructuring of the Law of slaughter must with respect to the area
stunning/killing mainly follow the guidelines of article 4 TierSchG. The Law of slaughter is
seen as an integral part of the Animal Welfare Legislation. This stipulates generally that
the standards of evaluation for the protection of animals should increasingly be oriented on
exact and reproducible scienti?c ?ndings. The approach, preparation, and implementation
as well as the results of a research project of the BML at the Clinic for small clawed
animals and forensic medicine and mobile clinic of the veterinary university of Hanover in
the context of conventional (captive bolt stunning) and ritual (ritual cut) slaughter of small
ruminants are being reported.


The insights gained through comparative investigation into the sensory physiological
processes during the slaughter of these animals differ in parts greatly from existing
conceptions. The necessary conclusions are being discussed and ?nally the effects on the
legal situation are being commented on.
From Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift (German veterinary weekly) volume 85
(1978), pages 62-66 translated by Dr Sahib M. Bleher, Dip Trans MIL

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